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Pump Handbook Complete

July 26, 2018 | Author: ingrbarros | Category: Pump, Machines, Applied And Interdisciplinary Physics, Gases, Gas Technologies
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GRUNDFOS INDUSTRY

PUMP HANDBOOK

Being responsible is our foundation Thinking ahead makes it possible Innovation is the essence

Poul Due Jensens Vej 7 DK-8850 Bjerringbro Tel: +45 87 50 14 00

www.grundfos.com

96563258 1104

GRUNDFOS Management A/S

PUMP HANDBOOK

Copyright 2004 GRUNDFOS Management A/S. All rights reserved. Copyright law and international treaties protect this material. No part of this material may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior written permission from GRUNDFOS Management A/S. Disclaimer All reasonable care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the contents of this material, however GRUNDFOS Management A/S shall not be reliable for any loss whether direct, indirect, incidental or consequential arising out of the use of or reliance upon any of the content of the material.

Foreword The manufacturing industry places heavy demand on pumps, when it comes to optimum operation, high reliability and low energy consumption. Therefore, Grundfos has developed the Pump handbook, which in a simple manner deals with various considerations when dimensioning pumps and pump systems. We have elaborated a handbook for engineers and technicians who work with design and installation of pumps and pump systems, containing answers to a wide range of technical pump specific questions. The Pump handbook can either be read from one end to the other or partly on specific topics. The handbook is divided into 5 chapters which deal with different phases when designing pump systems. Throughout chapter 1 we make a general presentation of different pump types and components. Here we also describe which precautions to adopt when dealing with viscous liquids. Further, the most used materials as well as different types of corrosion are presented here. The most important terminologies in connection with reading the pump performance are presented in chapter 2. Chapter 3 deals with system hydraulics and some of the most important factors to consider to obtain optimum operation of the pump system. As it is often necessary to adjust the pump performance by means of different adjustment methods, these are dealt with in chapter 4. Chapter 5 describes the life cycle costs as energy consumption plays an important role in today’s pumps and pump systems. We sincerely hope that you will make use of The pump handbook and find it useful in your daily work.

Segment Director

Business Development Manager

Allan Skovgaard

Claus Bærnholdt Nielsen

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Design of pumps and motors ......................7

Section 1.1 Pump construction ............................................................ 8 1.1.1 The centrifugal pump .................................................................. 8 1.1.2 Pump curves................................................................................................9 1.1.3 Characteristics of the centrifugal pump ......................... 11 1.1.4 Most common end-suction and in-line pump types .............................................................................. 12 1.1.5 Impeller types (axial forces) .......................................................14 1.1.6 Casing types (radial forces) ......................................................... 15 1.1.7 Single-stage pumps ........................................................................... 15 1.1.8 Multistage pumps ...............................................................................16 1.1.9 Long-coupled and close-coupled pumps ........................16 Section 1.2 Types of pumps ...................................................................17 1.2.1 Standard pumps .................................................................................... 17 1.2.2 Split-case pumps .................................................................................. 17 1.2.3 Hermetically sealed pumps ........................................................18 1.2.4 Sanitary pumps ..................................................................................... 20 1.2.5 Wastewater pumps............................................................................ 21 1.2.6 Immersible pumps ..............................................................................22 1.2.7 Borehole pumps ....................................................................................23 1.2.8 Positive displacement pumps ...................................................24 Section 1.3 Mechanical shaft seals ..................................................27 1.3.1 The mechanical shaft seal’s components and function............................................................29 1.3.2 Balanced and unbalanced shaft seals .............................. 30 1.3.3 Types of mechanical shaft seals ............................................. 31 1.3.4 Seal face material combinations ...........................................34 1.3.5 Factors affecting the seal performance ...........................36 Section 1.4 Motors .................................................................................... 39 1.4.1 Standards.................................................................................................... 40 1.4.2 Motor start-up ....................................................................................... 46 1.4.3 Voltage supply ........................................................................................47 1.4.4 Frequency converter ..........................................................................47 1.4.5 Motor protection ................................................................................. 49

Section 1.5 Liquids .......................................................................................53 1.5.1 Viscous liquids ........................................................................................54 1.5.2 Non-Newtonian liquids .................................................................. 55 1.5.3 The impact of viscous liquids on the performance of a centrifugal pump.................................... 55 1.5.4 Selecting the right pump for a liquid with antifreeze .......................................................................................56 1.5.5 Calculation example..........................................................................58 1.5.6 Computer aided pump selection for dense and viscous liquids .........................................................................................58 Section 1.6 Materials................................................................................ 59 1.6.1 What is corrosion?.............................................................................. 60 1.6.2 Types of corrosion................................................................................61 1.6.3 Metal and metal alloys ...................................................................65 1.6.4 Ceramics ....................................................................................................... 71 1.6.5 Plastics............................................................................................................ 71 1.6.6 Rubber ............................................................................................................ 72 1.6.7 Coatings ........................................................................................................ 73

Chapter 2 Installation and performance reading.............................................................................................................75 Section 2.1 Pump installation ............................................................ 76 2.1.1 New installation ....................................................................................76 2.1.2 Existing installation-replacement ........................................76 2.1.3 Pipe flow for single-pump installation ............................. 77 2.1.4 Limitation of noise and vibrations .......................................78 2.1.5 Sound level (L) .........................................................................................81 Section 2.2 Pump performance ........................................................ 83 2.2.1 Hydraulic terms .....................................................................................83 2.2.2 Electrical terms ...................................................................................... 90 2.2.3 Liquid properties ...................................................................................93

Chapter 3 System hydraulic .................................................... 95

Chapter 5 Life cycle costs calculation

Section 3.1 System characteristics .................................................96 3.1.1 Single resistances .................................................................................97 3.1.2 Closed and open systems ............................................................ 98

Section 5.1 Life cycle costs equation ............................................ 128 5.1.1 Initial costs, purchase price (Cic) ........................................... 129 5.1.2 Installation and commissioning costs (Cin) ................ 129 5.1.3 Energy costs (Ce) ................................................................................. 130 5.1.4 Operating costs (Co) ......................................................................... 130 5.1.5 Environmental costs (Cenv) ......................................................... 130 5.1.6 Maintenance and repair costs (Cm)..................................... 131 5.1.7 Downtime costs, loss of production (Cs) ....................... 131 5.1.8 Decommissioning and disposal costs (Co) ................... 131

Section 3.2 Pumps connected in series and parallel...................101 3.2.1 Pumps in parallel ................................................................................101 3.2.2 Pumps connected in series ....................................................... 103

Chapter 4 Performance adjustment of pumps..................................................................................................... 105 Section 4.1 Adjusting pump performance ..............................106 4.1.1 Throttle control ....................................................................................107 4.1.2 Bypass control .......................................................................................107 4.1.3 Modifying impeller diameter ................................................. 108 4.1.4 Speed control ........................................................................................ 108 4.1.5 Comparison of adjustment methods...............................110 4.1.6 Overall efficiency of the pump system ........................... 111 4.1.7 Example: Relative power consumption when the flow is reduced by 20%........................................ 111 Section 4.2 Speed-controlled pump solutions .................... 114 4.2.1 Constant pressure control..........................................................114 4.2.2 Constant temperature control ............................................... 115 4.2.3 Constant differential pressure in a circulating system ............................................................................. 115 4.2.4 Flow-compensated differential pressure control ...................................................................................116 Section 4.3 Advantages of speed control .................................117 Section 4.4 Advantages of pumps with integrated frequency converter............................................................................... 118 4.4.1 Performance curves of speed-controlled pumps ...........................................................................................................119 4.4.2 Speed-controlled pumps in different systems ........119 Section 4.5 Frequency converter .................................................... 122 4.5.1 Basic function and characteristics ......................................122 4.5.2 Components of the frequency converter .....................122 4.5.3 Special conditions regarding frequency converters ................................................................................................124

....................... 127

Section 5.2 Life cycle costs calculation – an example ................................................................................................132

Appendix .........................................................................................................133 A) Notations and units .........................................................................134 B) Unit conversion tables...................................................................135 C) SI-prefixes and Greek alphabet ............................................ 136 D) Vapour pressure and density of water at different temperatures .................................................................137 E) Orifice ..........................................................................................................138 F) Change in static pressure due to change in pipe diameter ................................................................................. 139 G) Nozzles ........................................................................................................ 140 H) Nomogram for head losses in bends, valves, etc. ..............................................................................141 I) Pipe loss nomogram for clean water 20˚C ..................142 J) Periodical system................................................................................143 K) Pump standards ................................................................................. 144 L) Viscosity for different liquids as a function of liquid temperature....................................................................145

Index ..................................................................................................................151

Index

A Absolute pressure Adjusting pump performance Aluminium Asynchronous motor ATEX (ATmosphère EXplosible) Austenitic (non-magnetic) Autotransformer starting Axial flow pumps Axial forces

85 106 70 40 41 68 46 8 14

B Balanced shaft seal Basic coupling Bearing Insulated bearing Bellows seal Borehole pump Bypass control

30 16 51 48 31 23 106

Speed control Constant differential pressure control Constant pressure control Constant temperature control Copper alloys Corrosion Cavitation corrosion Corrosion fatigue Crevice corrosion Erosion corrosion Galvanic corrosion Intergranular corrosion Pitting corrosion Selective corrosion Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) Uniform corrosion Corrosion fatigue Coupling Basic coupling Flexible coupling Spacer coupling Crevice corrosion

108 115 114 115 69 60 63 64 62 63 64 62 61 62 63 61 64 16 16 16 16 62

C Canned motor pump Cartridge seal Casing Double-volute Single-volute Return channel Cast iron Cavitation Cavitation corrosion Centrifugal pump Ceramics Close-coupled pump Closed system Coatings Metallic coatings Non-metallic coatings Organic coatings Computer aided pump selection Control Throttle control Bypass control

18 32 15 15 15 15 66 10, 89 63 8 71 12, 13, 16 96, 98 73 73 74 74 58 106 107 107

D Decommissioning and disposal costs 131 Deep well pump 23 Density 10, 93 Unit Appendix A Water Appendix D Brine Appendix L Diaphragm pump 25 Differential pressure 88 Differential pressure control 116 Dilatant liquid 55 Direct-on-line starting (DOL) 46 Dosing pump 25 Double mechanical shaft seal 33 Double seal in tandem 33 Double seal in back-to-back 34 Double-channel impeller 21 Double-inlet 17 Double-suction impeller 11, 17 Double-volute casing 15 Downtime costs 131

Index

Dust ignition proof (DIP) Duty point Dynamic pressure Dynamic viscosity

Index

42 96 84 54

E Earth-leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) Efficiency Efficiency at reduced speed Efficiency curve Electric motor Flameproof motor Increased safety motor Non-sparking motor EMC directive EMC filter Enclosure class (IP), motor End-suction pump Energy costs Energy savings Environmental costs Erosion corrosion Ethylene propylene rubber (EPDM) Expansion joints

125 10 109 10 40 41 41 42 123 123 43 12 130 111, 114, 117 130 63 72 80

F Ferritic (magnetic) 68 Ferritic-austenitic or duplex (magnetic) 68 Ferrous alloys 65 Flameproof motor 41 Flexible coupling 16 Floating plinth 79 Flow 83 Mass flow 83 Volume flow 83 Units Appendix B Fluoroelastomers (FKM) 72 Flushing 32 Foundation 78 Floating plinth 79 Floor 79 Plinth 79 Vibration dampeners 79

Frame size Frequency converter

44 47, 108, 118

G Galvanic corrosion Gauge pressure Geodetic head Geodetic lift Grey iron

64 85 99 99 66

H Head Heat capacity Hermetically sealed pump Horizontal pump Hydraulic power

9, 85 93 18 12, 13 10, 91

I IEC, motor Immersible pump Impeller Double-channel Single-channel Vortex impeller Increased safety motor Initial costs In-line pump Installation and commissioning costs Insulation class Intergranular corrosion

40 22 14, 21 21 21 21 41 129 12, 13 129 44 62

K Kinematic viscosity

54, Appendix L

L Life cycle costs Example Liquid Dilatant Newtonian Non-Newtonian Plastic fluid Thixotrophic Viscous Long-coupled pump Loss of production costs

N 117, 128 132 54 55 55 55 55 55 54 12, 13, 16 131

40 55 69 72 66 78 74 55 124 42 10, 89

O

M Magnetic drive Maintenance and repair costs Martensitic (magnetic) Mass flow Measuring pressure Mechanical shaft seal Bellows seal Cartridge seal Metal bellows seal Rubber bellows seal Function Flushing Metal alloys Ferrous alloys Metal bellows seal Metallic coatings Mixed flow pumps Modifying impeller diameter Motors Motor efficiency Motor insulation Motor protection Motor start-up Direct-on-line starting (DOL) Star/delta starting Autotransformer starting Frequency converter Soft starter Mounting of motor (IM) Multistage pump

NEMA, motor standard Newtonian fluid Nickel alloys Nitrile rubber Nodular iron Noise (vibration) Non-metallic coatings Non-Newtonian liquid Non-sinusoidal current Non-sparking motor NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head)

19 131 68 83 85 18, 28 31 32 32 31 29 32 65 65 32 73 8 108, 110 40 49 48 49 46 46 46 46 46, 47 46 43 11, 12, 13, 16

Open system Operating costs Organic coatings O-ring seal Oversized pumps

96, 99 106, 130 74 31 106

P Paints Perfluoroelastomers (FFKM) Phase insulation PI-controller Pitting corrosion Plastic fluid Plastics Plinth Positive displacement pump Power consumption Hydraulic power Shaft power Pressure Absolute pressure Differential pressure Dynamic pressure Gauge pressure Measuring pressure Static pressure System pressure Units Vapour pressure

74 72 48 114 61 55 71 79 24 10, 91 10, 91 91 84 85 88 84 85 85 84 88 85, Appendix A 90, Appendix D

Index

Pressure control Constant differential pressure control 115 Constant pressure 114 Constant pressure control 119 Constant supply pressure 114 Pressure transmitter (PT) 114 Proportional pressure control 120 PTC thermistors 50 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) 123 Pump Axial flow pump 8 Borehole pump 23 Canned motor pump 18 Centrifugal pump 8 Close-coupled pump 12, 13, 16 Diaphragm pump 25 Dosing pump 25 Hermetically sealed pump 18 Horizontal pump 12, 13 Immersible pump 22 Long-coupled pump 12, 13, 16 Magnetic-driven pump 19 Mixed flow pump 8 Multistage pump 11, 12, 13, 16 Positive displacement pump 24 Radial flow pump 8 Sanitary pump 20 Single-stage pump 15 Split-case pump 12, 13, 17 Standard pump 17 Vertical pump 12, 13 Wastewater pump 21 Pump casing 15 Pump characteristic 9, 96 Pump curve 9 Pump installation 77 Pump performance curve 9, 96 Pumps connected in series 103 Pumps in parallel 101 Pumps with integrated frequency converter 118 Purchase costs 129 PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) 123

Index

Q QH-curve

9

R Radial flow pump Radial forces Reinforced insulation Resistances connected in parallel Resistances connected in series Return channel casing Rubber Ethylene propylene rubber (EPDM) Fluoroelastomers (FKM) Nitrile rubber (NBK) Perfluoroelastomers (FFKM) Silicone rubber (Q) Rubber bellows seal

8 15 48 98 97 11, 15 72 72 72 72 72 72 31

S Sanitary pump Seal face Seal gab Selective corrosion Setpoint Shaft Shaft power Shaft seal Balanced shaft seal Unbalanced shaft seal Silicone rubber (Q) Single resistances Resistances connected in series Single-channel impeller Single-stage pump Single-suction impeller Single-volute casing Soft starter Sound level Sound pressure level Spacer coupling

20 28 29 62 114 11 91 28 30 30 72 97 97 21 11, 12, 13, 15 11 15 46 81 82 16

Speed control 106, 108, 110 Variable speed control 108 Speed-controlled pumps in parallel 102 Split-case pump 12, 13, 17 Stainless steel 66 Standard pump 17 Standards 40 IEC, motor 40 NEMA, motor 40 Sanitary standards 20 Standstill heating of motor 51 Star/delta starting 46 Static pressure 84 Steel 65 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) 63 Stuffing box 28 Submersible pump 23 System characteristic 96 Closed system 96, 98 Open system 96, 99 System costs 117 System pressure 88

T Temperature Units Thermoplastics Thermosets Thixotrophic liquid Throttle control Throttle valve Titanium Twin pump

93 Appendix B 71 71 55 106, 110-113 107 70 11

U Unbalanced shaft seal Uniform corrosion

30 61

V Vapour pressure Variable speed control Vertical pump Vibration dampeners Vibrations Viscosity Dynamic viscosity Viscous liquid Viscous liquid pump curve Voltage supply Volume flow Units Volute casing Vortex impeller Wastewater pump

90, Appendix D 108 12, 13 79 78 54, Appendix L 54 54 55 47 83 Appendix A 11 21 21

Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.1: Pump construction 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6 1.1.7 1.1.8 1.1.9

The centrifugal pump Pump curves Characteristics of the centrifugal pump Most common end-suction and in-line pump types Impeller types (axial forces) Casing types (radial forces) Single-stage pumps Multistage pumps Long-coupled and close-coupled pumps

Section 1.2: Types of pumps 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 1.2.7 1.2.8

Standard pumps Split-case pumps Hermetically sealed pumps Sanitary pumps Wastewater pumps Immersible pumps Borehole pumps Positive displacement pumps

Section 1.1 Pump construction

1.1.1 The centrifugal pump In 1689 the physicist Denis Papin invented the centrifugal pump and today this kind of pump is the most used around the world. The centrifugal pump is built on a simple principle: Liquid is led to the impeller hub and by means of the centrifugal force it is flung towards the periphery of the impellers. The construction is fairly inexpensive, robust and simple and its high speed makes it possible to connect the pump directly to an asynchronous motor. The centrifugal pump provides a steady liquid flow, and it can easily be throttled without causing any damage to the pump. Now let us have a look at figure 1.1.1, which shows the liquid’s flow through the pump. The inlet of the pump leads the liquid to the centre of the rotating impeller from where it is flung towards the periphery. This construction gives a high efficiency, and is suitable for handling pure liquids. Pumps, which have to handle impure liquids, such as wastewater pumps, are fitted with an impeller that is constructed especially to avoid that objects get stocked inside the pump, see section 1.2.5.

Fig. 1.1.1: The liquid’s flow through the pump

Radial flow pump

Mixed flow pump

Axial flow pump

Fig. 1.1.2: Different kinds of centrifugal pumps

If a pressure difference occurs in the system while the centrifugal pump is not running, liquid can still pass through it due to its open design. As you can tell from figure 1.1.2, the centrifugal pump can be categorised in different groups: Radial flow pumps, mixed flow pumps and axial flow pumps. Radial flow pumps and mixed flow pumps are the most common types used. Therefore, we will only concentrate on these types of pumps on the following pages.

H [m]

104 6 4 2

Multistage radial flow pumps

103 6 4 2 102

However, we will briefly present the positive displacement pump in section 1.2.8.

Single-stage radial flow pumps

6 4 2 101

The different demands on the centrifugal pump’s performance, especially with regards to head, flow, and installation, together with the demands for economical operation, are only a few of the reasons why so many types of pump exist. Figure 1.1.3 shows the different pump types with regard to flow and pressure.

8

Mixed flow pumps

6 4 2

Axial flow pumps

1

2

4 6 101 2

2

4 6 10

2

4 6 103 2

4 6 104 2

5

4 6 10

Q [m3/s]

Fig. 1.1.3: Flow and head for different types of centrifugal pumps

1.1.2 Pump curves Before we dig any further into the world of pump construction and pump types, we will present the basic characteristics of pump performance curves. The performance of a centrifugal pump is shown by a set of performance curves. The performance curves for a centrifugal pump are shown in figure 1.1.4. Head, power consumption, efficiency and NPSH are shown as a function of the flow.

η [%]

H [m]

50

40 70 30

Efficiency

50

20

40

10

20

30 10 0

P2 [kW]

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Q [m /h] 3

0

NPSH (m) 12

Power consumption

10

Normally, pump curves in data booklets only cover the pump part. Therefore, the power consumption, the P2value, which is listed in the data booklets as well, only covers the power going into the pump – see figure 1.1.4. The same goes for the efficiency value, which only covers the pump part (η = ηP).

60

10 8

8

6

6 4

4

NPSH

2

2

0

Fig. 1.1.4: Typical performance curves for a centrifugal pump. Head, power consumption, efficiency and NPSH are shown as a function of the flow

Q In some pump types with integrated motor and possibly integrated frequency converter, e.g. canned motor pumps (see section 1.2.3), the power consumption curve and the η-curve cover both the motor and the pump. In this case it is the P1-value that has to be taken into account. In general, pump curves are designed according to ISO 9906 Annex A, which specifies the tolerances of the curves:

• • • •

Q +/- 9%, H +/-7%, P +9% -7%.

What follows is a brief presentation of the different pump performance curves.

P1

M 3~

P2

H

ηM

ηP

Fig. 1.1.5: The curves for power consumption and efficiency will normally only cover the pump part of the unit – i.e. P2 and ηP

H [m] 60

50

40

30

Head, the QH-curve

20

10

The QH-curve shows the head, which the pump is able to perform at a given flow. Head is measured in meter liquid column [mLC]; normally the unit meter [m] is applied. The advantage of using the unit [m] as the unit of measurement for a pump’s head is that the QH-curve is not affected by the type of liquid the pump has to handle, see section 2.2 for more information.

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80 Q [m3/h]

Fig. 1.1.6: A typical QH-curve for a centrifugal pump; low flow results in high head and high flow results in low head

9

Section 1.1 Pump construction

Efficiency, the η-curve The efficiency is the relation between the supplied power and the utilised amount of power. In the world of pumps, the efficiency ηP is the relation between the power, which the pump delivers to the water (PH) and the power input to the shaft (P2 ):

ηp =

PH ρ.g.Q.H = P2 P2

where: ρ is the density of the liquid in kg/m3, g is the acceleration of gravity in m/s2, Q is the flow in m3/s and H is the head in m.

η [%] 80 70 60 50 40 30 20

For water at 20oC and with Q measured in m3/h and H in m, the hydraulic power can be calculated as :

PH = 2.72 . Q . H [W]

10 0 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Q [m3/h]

Fig. 1.1.7: The efficiency curve of a typical centrifugal pump

As it appears from the efficiency curve, the efficiency depends on the duty point of the pump. Therefore, it is important to select a pump, which fits the flow requirements and ensures that the pump is working in the most efficient flow area. P2 [kW]

Power consumption, the P2-curve

10 8 6 4

The relation between the power consumption of the pump and the flow is shown in figure 1.1.8. The P2-curve of most centrifugal pumps is similar to the one in figure 1.1.8 where the P2 value increases when the flow increases.

NPSH-curve (Net Positive Suction Head) The NPSH-value of a pump is the minimum absolute pressure (see section 2.2.1) that has to be present at the suction side of the pump to avoid cavitation. The NPSH-value is measured in [m] and depends on the flow; when the flow increases, the NPSH-value increases as well; figure 1.1.9. For more information concerning cavitation and NPSH, go to section 2.2.1.

10

2 0 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Q [m3/h]

Fig. 1.1.8: The power consumption curve of a typical centrifugal pump

NPSH [m] 10 8 6 4 2 0 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Q [m3/h]

Fig. 1.1.9: The NPSH-curve of a typical centrifugal pump

1.1.3 Characteristics of the centrifugal pump The centrifugal pump has several characteristics and in this section, we will present the most important ones. Later on in this chapter we will give a more thorough description of the different pump types.

• The number of stages Depending on the number of impellers in the pump, a centrifugal pump can be either a single-stage pump or a multistage pump.

• The position of the pump shaft Single-stage and multistage pumps come with horizontal or vertical pump shafts. These pumps are normally designated horizontal or vertical pumps. For more information, go to section 1.1.4.

• Single-suction or double-suction impellers Depending on the construction of the impeller, a pump can be fitted with either a single-suction impeller or a doublesuction impeller. For more information, go to section 1.1.5.

• Coupling of stages The pump stages can be arranged in two different ways: in series and in parallel, see figure 1.1.10.

• Construction of the pump casing We distinguish between two types of pump casing: Volute casing and return channel casing with guide vanes. For more information, go to section 1.1.6.

Fig 1.1.10: Twin pump with parallel-coupled impellers

11

Section 1.1 Pump construction

1.1.4 Most common end-suction and in-line pump types

End-suction

Horizontal

Single-stage

Long-coupled

12

Multistage

Close-coupled

Close-coupled

End-suction pump

=

The liquid runs directly into the impeller. Inlet and outlet have a 90° angle. See section 1.1.9

In-line pump

=

The liquid runs directly through the pump in-line. The suction pipe and the discharge pipe are placed opposite one another and can be mounted directly in the piping system

Split-case pump

=

Pump with an axially divided pump housing. See section 1.2.2

Horizontal pump

=

Pump with a horizontal pump shaft

Vertical pump

=

Pump with a vertical pump shaft

Single-stage pump

=

Pump with a single impeller. See section 1.1.7

Multistage pump

=

Pump with several series-coupled stages. See section 1.1.8

Long-coupled pump

=

Pump connected to the motor by means of a flexible coupling. The motor and the pump have separate bearing constructions. See section 1.1.9

Close-coupled pump

=

A pump connected to the motor by means of a rigid coupling. See section 1.1.9

In-line

Horizontal

Horizontal / Vertical

Split-case Single-stage

Multistage

Single-stage Long-coupled

Long-coupled

Close-coupled

Close-coupled

13

Section 1.1 Pump construction

1.1.5 Impeller types (axial forces) A centrifugal pump generates pressure that exerts forces on both stationary and rotating parts of the pump. Pump parts are made to withstand these forces. If axial and radial forces are not counterbalanced in the pump, the forces have to be taken into consideration when selecting the driving system for the pump (angular contact bearings in the motor). In pumps fitted with single-suction impeller, large axial forces may occur, figures 1.1.11 and 1.1.12. These forces are balanced in one of the following ways:

Axial forces

Fig. 1.1.11: Single-suction impeller

Fig. 1.1.12: Standard pump with single-suction impeller

• Mechanically by means of thrust bearings. These types of bearings are specially designed to absorb the axial forces from the impellers • By means of balancing holes on the impeller, see figure 1.1.13

Fig. 1.1.13: Balancing the axial forces in a single-stage centrifugal pump with balancing holes only

• By means of throttle regulation from a seal ring mounted on the back of the impellers, see figure 1.1.14 • Dynamic impact from the back of the impeller, see figure 1.1.15

Fig. 1.1.14: Balancing the axial forces in a single-stage centrifugal pump with sealing gap at discharge side and balancing holes

• The axial impact on the pump can be avoided by either using double-suction impellers (see figure 1.1.16). Fig. 1.1.15: Balancing the axial forces in a single-stage centrifugal pump with blades on the back of the impellers

Fig. 1.1.16: Balancing the axial forces in a double-suction impeller arrangement

14

1.1.6 Casing types (radial forces)

Fig. 1.1.17: Single-suction impeller

Radial forces

Radial forces are a result of the static pressure in the casing. Therefore, axial deflections may occur and lead to interference between the impeller and the casing. The magnitude and the direction of the radial force depend on the flow rate and the head.

Fig. 1.1.18: Single-volute casing

Double-volute casing

Radial force

When designing the casing for the pump, it is possible to control the hydraulic radial forces. Two casing types are worth mentioning: the single-volute casing and the double-volute casing. As you can tell from figure 1.1.18, both casings are shaped as a volute. The difference between them is, that the double-volute has an guide vane. The single-volute pump is characterised by a symmetric pressure in the volute at the optimum efficiency point, which leads to zero radial load. At all other points, the pressure around the impeller is not regular and consequently a radial force is present. As you can tell from figure 1.1.19, the double-volute casing develops a constant low radial reaction force at any capacity. Return channels (figure 1.1.20) are used in multistage pumps and have the same basic function as volute casings. The liquid is led from one impeller to the next and at the same time, the rotation of water is reduced and the dynamic pressure is transformed into static pessure. Because of the return channel casing’s circular design, no radial forces are present.

Volute casing

Double-volute casing 1.0

Q/Qopt

Fig. 1.1.19: Radial force for single- and double-volute casing

Fig. 1.1.20: Vertical multistage in-line pump with return channel casing Return channel

1.1.7 Single-stage pumps Generally, single-stage pumps are used in applications, which do not require a total head of more than 150 m. Normally, single-stage pumps operate in the interval of 2-100 m. Single-stage pumps are characterised by providing a low head relative to the flow, see figure 1.1.3. The single-stage pump comes in both a vertical and a horizontal design, see figures 1.1.21 and 1.1.22.

Fig. 1.1.21: Horizontal single-stage end-suction close-coupled pump

Fig. 1.1.22: Vertical single-stage in-line close-coupled pump

15

Section 1.1 Pump construction

1.1.8 Multistage pumps Multistage pumps are used in installations where a high head is needed. Several stages are connected in series and the flow is guided from the outlet of one stage to the inlet of the next. The final head that a multistage pump can deliver is equal to the sum of pressure each of the stages can provide. The advantage of multistage pumps is that they provide high head relative to the flow. Like the single-stage pump, the multistage pump is available in both a vertical and a horizontal version, see figures 1.1.23 and 1.1.24.

Fig. 1.1.23: Vertical multistage in-line pump

Fig. 1.1.24: Horizontal multistage end-suction pump

Fig. 1.1.25: Long-coupled pump with basic coupling

Fig. 1.1.26: Long-coupled pump with spacer coupling

1.1.9 Long-coupled and close-coupled pumps Long-coupled pumps Long-coupled pumps are pumps with a flexible coupling that connects the pump and the motor. This kind of coupling is available either as a basic coupling or as a spacer coupling. If the pump is connected to the motor by a basic coupling, it is necessary to dismount the motor when the pump needs service. Therefore, it is necessary to align the pump upon mounting, see figure 1.1.25. On the other hand, if the pump is fitted with a spacer coupling, it is possible to service the pump without dismounting the motor. Alignment is thus not an issue, see figure 1.1.26.

Close-coupled pumps Close-coupled pumps can be constructed in the following two ways: Either the pump has the impeller mounted directly on the extended motor shaft or the pump has a standard motor and a rigid or a spacer coupling, see figures 1.1.27 and 1.1.28.

16

Fig. 1.1.27: Close-coupled pump with rigid coupling

Fig. 1.1.28: Different coupling types

Basic coupling type Long-coupled pump with flexible coupling

Close-coupled pump with rigid coupling

Spacer coupling (option)

Section 1.2 Types of pumps

1.2.1 Standard pumps Few international standards deal with centrifugal pumps. In fact, many countries have their own standards, which more or less overlap one another. A standard pump is a pump that complies with official regulations as to for example the pump’s duty point. What follows, are a couple of examples of international standards for pumps:

Fig. 1.2.1: Long-coupled standard pump

• EN 733 (DIN 24255) applies to end-suction centrifugal pumps, also known as standard water pumps with a rated pressure (PN) of 10 bar. • EN 22858 (ISO 2858) applies to centrifugal pumps, also known as standard chemical pumps with a rated pressure (PN) of 16 bar, see appendix K. The standards mentioned above cover the installation dimensions and the duty points of the different pump types. As to the hydraulic parts of these pump types, they vary according to the manufacturer – thus, no international standards are set for these parts.

Fig. 1.2.2: Bare shaft standard pump

Pumps, which are designed according to standards, provide the end-user with advantages with regard to service, spare parts and maintenance.

1.2.2 Split-case pumps A split-case pump is a pump with the pump housing divided axially into two parts. Figure 1.2.4 shows a singlestage split-case pump with a double-suction impeller. The double-inlet construction eliminates the axial forces and ensures a longer life span of the bearings. Usually, split-case pumps have a rather high efficiency, are easy to service and have a wide performance range.

Fig. 1.2.3: Long-coupled split-case pump

Fig. 1.2.4: Split-case pump with double-suction impeller

17

Section 1.2 Types of pumps

Liquid

1.2.3 Hermetically sealed pumps

Seal Atmosphere

It comes as no surprise that a pump’s shaft lead-in has to be sealed. Usually, this is done by means of a mechanical shaft seal, see figure 1.2.5. The disadvantage of the mechanical shaft seal is its poor properties when it comes to handling of toxic and aggressive liquids, which consequently leads to leakage. These problems can to some extent be solved by using a double mechanical shaft seal. Another solution to these problems is to use a hermetically sealed pump. We distinguish between two types of hermetically sealed pumps: Canned motor pumps and magnetic-driven pumps. In the following two sections, you can find additional information about these pumps.

Fig. 1.2.5: Example of a standard pump with mechanical shaft seal

Canned motor pumps A canned motor pump is a hermetically sealed pump with the motor and pump integrated in one unit without a seal, see figures 1.2.6 and 1.2.7. The pumped liquid is allowed to enter the rotor chamber that is separated from the stator by a thin rotor can. The rotor can serves as a hermetically sealed barrier between the liquid and the motor. Chemical pumps are made of materials, e.g. plastics or stainless steel that can withstand aggressive liquids.

Motor can

Fig. 1.2.6: Chemical pump with canned motor

The most common canned motor pump type is the circulator pump. This type of pump is typically used in heating circuits because the construction provides low noise and maintenance-free operation.

Motor can

Fig. 1.2.7: Circulator pump with canned motor

18

Magnetic-driven pumps In recent years, magnetic-driven pumps have become increasingly popular for transferring aggressive and toxic liquids.

Outer magnets

Inner magnets

Can

As shown in figure 1.2.8, the magnetic-driven pump is made of two groups of magnets; an inner magnet and an outer magnet. A non-magnetizable can separate these two groups. The can serves as a hermetically sealed barrier between the liquid and the atmosphere. As it appears from figure 1.2.9, the outer magnet is connected to the pump drive and the inner magnet is connected to the pump shaft. Hereby the torque from the pump drive is transmitted to the pump shaft. The pumped liquid serves as lubricant for the bearings in the pump. Therefore, sufficient venting is crucial for the bearings. Fig. 1.2.8: Construction of magnetic drive

Inner magnets Outer magnets Can

Fig. 1.2.9: Magnetic-driven multistage pump

19

Section 1.2 Types of pumps

1.2.4 Sanitary pumps Sanitary pumps are mainly used in the food, beverage, pharmaceutical and bio-technological industries where it is important that the pumped liquid is handled in a gentle manner and that the pumps are easy to clean. In order to meet process requirements in these industries, the pumps have to have a surface roughness between 3.2 and 0.4 µm Ra. This can be best achieved by using forged or deep-drawn rolled stainless steel as materials of construction, see figure 1.2.12. These materials have a compact pore-free surface finish that can be easily worked up to meet the various surface finish requirements.

Fig. 1.2.10: Sanitary pump

The main features of a sanitary pump are ease of cleaning and ease of maintenance. The leading manufacturers of sanitary pumps have designed their products to meet the following standards:

EHEDG – European Hygienic Equipment Design Group QHD

– Qualified Hygienic Design

3-A

– Sanitary Standards: 3A0/3A1: Industrial/Hygienic Standard Ra ≤ 3.2 µm 3A2: Sterile Standard Ra ≤ 0.8 µm 3A3: Sterile Standard Ra ≤ 0.4 µm

Fig.1.2.11: Sanitary self-priming side-channel pump

Sand casting

Precision casting

Rolled steel Fig.1.2.12: Roughness of material surfaces

20

1.2.5 Wastewater pumps A wastewater pump is an enclosed unit with a pump and a motor. Due to this construction the wastewater pump is suitable for submersible installation in pits. In submersible installations with auto-coupling systems double rails are normally used. The auto-coupling system facilitates maintenance, repair and replacement of the pump. Because of the construction of the pump, it is not necessary to enter the pit to carry out service. In fact, it is possible to connect and disconnect the pump automatically from the outside of the pit. Wastewater pumps can also be installed dry like conventional pumps in vertical or horizontal installations. Likewise this type of installation provides easy maintenance and repair like it provides uninterrupted operation of the pump in case of flooding of the dry pit, see figure 1.2.14.

Fig.1.2.13: Detail of a sewage pump for wet installations

Normally, wastewater pumps have to be able to handle large particles. Therefore they are fitted with special impellers that make it possible to avoid blockage and clogging. Different types of impellers exist; single-channel impellers, doublechannel impellers three and four-channel impellers and vortex impellers. Figure 1.2.15 shows the different designs of these impellers. Wastewater pumps usually come with a dry motor, which is IP68 protected (for more information on IP-classes, go to section 1.4.1). Motor and pump have a common extended shaft with a double mechanical shaft seal system in an intermediate oil chamber, see figure 1.2.13. Wastewater pumps are able to operate either intermittently or continuously depending on the installation in question.

Fig. 1.2.14: Wastewater pump for dry installations

Vortex impeller

Single-channel impeller

Double-channel impeller

Fig. 1.2.15: Impeller types for wastewater

21

Section 1.2 Types of pumps

1.2.6 Immersible pumps An immersible pump is a pump type where the pump part is immersed in the pumped liquid and the motor is kept dry. Normally, immersible pumps are mounted on top of or in the wall of tanks or containers. Immersible pumps are for example used in the machine tool industry for example in spark machine tools, grinding machines, machining centres and cooling units or in other industrial applications involving tanks or containers, such as industrial washing and filtering systems. Pumps for machine tools can be divided in two groups: Pumps for the clean side of the filter and pumps for the dirty side of the filter. Pumps with closed impellers are normally used for the clean side of the filter, because they provide a high efficiency and a high pressure if necessary. Pumps with open or semi-open impellers are normally used for the dirty side of the filter, because they can handle metal chips and particles.

Fig. 1.2.16: Immersible pump

22

1.2.7 Borehole pumps Two types of borehole pumps exist: The submerged borehole pump type with a submersible motor, and the deep well pump with a dry motor, which is connected to the pump by a long shaft. These pumps are normally used in connection with water supply and irrigation. Both pump types are made to be installed in deep and narrow boreholes and have thus a reduced diameter, which makes them longer than other pump types, see figure 1.2.17. The borehole pumps are specially designed to be submerged in a liquid and are thus fitted with a submersible motor, which is IP68 protected. The pump comes in both a single-stage and a multistage version (the multistage version being the most common one), and is fitted with a non-return valve in the pump head. Today, the deep well pump has been more or less replaced by the submerged pump type. The long shaft of the deep well pump is a drawback, which makes it difficult to install and carry out service. Because the deep well pump motor is air-cooled, the pump is often used in industrial applications to pump hot water from open tanks. The submersible pump cannot handle as high temperatures because the motor is submerged in the liquid, which has to cool it.

Fig. 1.2.17: Submersible pump

23

Section 1.2 Types of pumps

H

1.2.8 Positive displacement pumps

Fig. 1.2.18: Typical relation between flow and head for 3 different pump types: 1) Centrifugal pumps 2) Rotary pumps 3) Reciprocating pumps

The positive displacement pump provides an approximate constant flow at fixed speed, despite changes in the counterpressure. Two main types of positive displacement pumps exist:

1 H

• Rotary pumps • Reciprocating pumps The difference in performance between a centrifugal pump, a rotary pump and a reciprocating is illustrated to the right, figure 1.2.18. Depending on which of these pumps you are dealing with, a small change in the pump’s counterpressure results in differences in the flow. The flow of a centrifugal pump will change considerably, the flow of a rotary pump will change a little, while the flow of a reciprocating pump will hardly change at all. But, why is there a difference between the pump curves for reciprocating pumps and rotary pumps? The actual seal face surface is larger for rotary pumps than for reciprocating pumps. So, even though the two pumps are designed with the same tolerances, the gap loss of the rotary pump is larger.

3

2

1

The pumps are typically designed with the finest tolerances possible to obtain the highest possible efficiency and suction capability. However, in some cases, it is necessary to increase the tolerances, for example when the pumps have to handle highly viscous liquids, liquids containing particles and liquids of high temperature. Positive displacement pumps are pulsate, meaning that their volume flow within a cycle is not constant. The variation in flow and speed leads to pressure fluctuations due to resistance in the pipe system and in valves.

Diaphragm

Steam

Plunger

Power

Double-acting

Double-acting

Duplex

Flexible member Screw Gear

Multiple rotor

Lobe Circumferential piston

Fig. 1.2.19: Classification of positive displacement pumps

24

Duplex Simplex

Piston

Rotary

Simplex

Single-acting

Vane Single rotor

Q

3

Reciprocating

Positive displacement pumps

2

Screw

Triplex Multiplex

Dosing pumps The dosing pump belongs to the positive displacement pump family and is typically of the diaphragm type. Diaphragm pumps are leakage-free, because the diaphragm forms a seal between the liquid and the surroundings. The diaphragm pump is fitted with two non-return valves – one on the suction side and one on the discharge side of the pump. In connection with smaller diaphragm pumps, the diaphragm is activated by the connecting rod, which is connected to an electromagnet. Thereby the coil receives the exact amount of strokes needed, see figure 1.2.21. In connection with larger diaphragm pumps the diaphragm is typically mounted on the connecting rod, which is activated by a camshaft. The camshaft is turned by means of a standard asynchronous motor, see figure 1.2.22. The flow of a diaphragm pump is adjusted by either changing the stroke length and/or the frequency of the strokes. If it is necessary to enlarge the operating area, frequency converters can be connected to the larger diaphragm pumps, see figure 1.2.22.

Fig.1.2.21: Solenoid spring return

+

Yet, another kind of diaphragm pump exists. In this case, the diaphragm is activated by means of an excentrically driven connecting rod powered by a stepper motor or a synchronous motor, figures 1.2.20 and 1.2.23. By using a stepper motor drive the pump’s dynamic area is increased and its accuracy is improved considerably. With this construction it is no longer necessary to adjust the pump’s stroke length because the connection rod is mounted directly on the diaphragm. The result is optimised suction conditions and excellent operation features.

Fig. 1.2.20: Dosing pump

1.2.22: Cam-drive spring return

So therefore, it is simple to control both the suction side and the discharge side of the pump. Compared to traditional electromagnetic-driven diaphragm pumps which provide powerful pulsations, stepper motor-driven diaphragm pumps make it possible to get a much more steady dosage of additive.

+

1.2.23: Crank drive

25

Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.3: Mechanical shaft seals 1.3.1 The mechanical shaft seal’s components and function 1.3.2 Balanced and unbalanced shaft seals 1.3.3 Types of mechanical shaft seals 1.3.4 Seal face material combinations 1.3.5 Factors affecting the seal performance

Section 1.3 Mechanical shaft seals

From the middle of the 1950s mechanical shaft seals gained ground in favour of the traditional sealing method - the stuffing box. Compared to stuffing boxes, mechanical shaft seals provide the following advantages:

• They keep tight at smaller displacements and vibrations in the shaft

• They do not require any adjustment • Seal faces provide a small amount of friction and thus, minimise the power loss

• The shaft does not slide against any of the seal’s components and thus, is not damaged because of wear (reduced repair costs). The mechanical shaft seal is the part of a pump that separates the liquid from the atmosphere. In figure 1.3.1 you can see a couple of examples where the mechanical shaft seal is mounted in different types of pumps. The majority of mechanical shaft seals are made according to the European standard EN 12756. Before choosing a shaft seal, there are certain things you need to know about the liquid and thus the seal’s resistance to the liquid:

• Determine the type of liquid • Determine the pressure that the shaft seal is exposed to • Determine the speed that the shaft seal is exposed to • Determine the built-in dimensions On the following pages we will present how a mechanical shaft seal works, the different types of seal, which kind of materials mechanical shaft seals are made of and which factors that affect the mechanical shaft seal’s performance.

28

Fig. 1.3.1: Pumps with mechanical shaft seals

1.3.1 The mechanical shaft seal’s components and function The mechanical shaft seal is made of two main components: a rotating part and a stationary part; and consists of the parts listed in figure 1.3.2. Figure 1.3.3 shows where the different parts are placed in the seal.

• The stationary part of the seal is fixed in the pump

Mechanical shaft seal

Designation

Rotating part

Secondary seal Spring

Seal face (primary seal)

Spring retainer (torque transmission) Stationary part

Seat (seal faces, primary seal) Static seal (secondary seal)

Fig. 1.3.2: The mechanical shaft seal’s components

housing. The rotating part of the seal is fixed on the pump shaft and rotates when the pump operates.

• The two primary seal faces are pushed against each other by the spring and the liquid pressure. During operation a liquid film is produced in the narrow gap between the two seal faces. This film evaporates before it enters the atmosphere, making the mechanical shaft seal liquid tight, see figure 1.3.4.

Spring

Secondary seal Primary seal

Stationary part Rotating part

Spring retainer

Shaft

• Secondary seals prevent leakage from occurring between the assembly and the shaft.

• The spring presses the seal faces together mechanically.

Secondary seal

Fig. 1.3.3: Main components of the mechanical shaft seal

• The spring retainer transmits torque from the shaft to

Vapour

the seal. In connection with mechanical bellows shaft seals, torque is transferred directly through the bellows.

Primary seal

Evaporation begins

Lubrication film Liquid force Spring force

Seal gap During operation the liquid forms a lubricating film between the seal faces. This lubricating film consists of a hydrostatic and a hydrodynamic film.

Fig. 1.3.4: Mechanical shaft seal in operation

• The hydrostatic element is generated by the pumped liquid which is forced into the gap between the seal faces.

• The hydrodynamic lubricating film is created by pressure generated by the shaft’s rotation.

29

Section 1.3 Mechanical shaft seals

Start of evaporation 1 atm

Exit into atmosphere

1.3.2 Balanced and unbalanced shaft seals To obtain an acceptable face pressure between the primary seal faces, two kind of seal types exist: a balanced shaft seal and an unbalanced shaft seal.

Stationary seal face

Rotating seal face Pump pressure

Entrance in seal

Pressure Liquid

Vapour

Atmosphere

Fig. 1.3.5: Optimum ratio between fine lubrication properties and limited leakage

Balanced shaft seal Figure 1.3.6 shows a balanced shaft seal indicating where the forces interact on the seal.

Unbalanced shaft seal The thickness of the lubricating film depends on the pump speed, the liquid temperature, the viscosity of the liquid and the axial forces of the mechanical shaft seal. The liquid is continuously changed in the seal gap because of

• evaporation of the liquid to the atmosphere

Figure 1.3.7 shows an unbalanced shaft seal indicating where the forces interact on the seal.

Contact area of seal faces

Contact area of seal faces Spring forces

Hydraulic forces

Hydraulic forces

• the liquid’s circular movement A

Figure 1.3.5 shows the optimum ratio between fine lubrication properties and limited leakage. As you can tell, the optimum ratio is when the lubricating film covers the entire seal gap, except for a very narrow evaporation zone close to the atmospheric side of the mechanical shaft seal. Leakage due to deposits on the seal faces is often observed. When using coolant agents, deposits are built up quickly by the evaporation at the atmosphere side of the seal. When the liquid evaporates in the evaporation zone, microscopic solids in the liquid remain in the seal gap as deposits creating wear. These deposits are seen in connection with most types of liquid. But when the pumped liquid has a tendency to crystallise, it can become a problem. The best way to prevent wear is to select seal faces made of hard material, such as tungsten carbide (WC) or silicon carbide (SiC). The narrow seal gap between these materials (app. 0.3 µm Ra) minimises the risk of solids entering the seal gap and thereby minimises the amount of deposits building up.

30

B

Fig. 1.3.6: Interaction of forces on the balanced shaft seal

A

B

Fig. 1.3.7: Interaction of forces on the unbalanced shaft seal

Several different forces have an axial impact on the seal faces. The spring force and the hydraulic force from the pumped liquid press the seal together while the force from the lubricating film in the seal gap counteracts this. In connection with high liquid pressure, the hydraulic forces can be so powerful that the lubricant in the seal gap cannot counteract the contact between the seal faces. Because the hydraulic force is proportionate to the area that the liquid pressure affects, the axial impact can only be reduced by obtaining a reduction of the pressure-loaded area.

Wear rate comparative

0

20

40

60

The balancing ratio (K) of a mechanical shaft seal is defined as the ratio between the area A and the area (B) : K=A/B

80

100

120 140 Wear rate comparative o

Temperature ( C)

K = 1.15 K = 1.00 K = 0.85

K = Balancing ratio A = Area exposed to hydraulic pressure B = Contact area of seal faces For balanced shaft seals the balancing ratio is usually around K=0.8 and for unbalanced shaft seals the balancing ratio is normally around K=1.2. 0

20

40

60

80

100

Fig. 1.3.8: Wear rate for different balancing ratios

120

140

Temperature (oC)

K = 1.15

1.3.3 Types of mechanical shaft seals

K = 1.00 K = 0.85

What follows is a brief outline of the main types of mechanical shaft seals: O-ring seal, bellows seal, and the one-unit seal - the cartridge seal.

Fig. 1.3.9: O-ring seal Advantages and disadvantages of O-ring seal

O-ring seals In an O-ring seal, sealing between the rotating shaft and the rotating seal face is effected by an O-ring (figure 1.3.9). The O-ring must be able to slide freely in the axial direction to absorb axial displacements as a result of changes in temperatures and wear. Incorrect positioning of the stationary seat may result in rubbing and thus unnecessary wear on the O-ring and on the shaft. O-rings are made of different types of rubber material, such as NBR, EPDM and FKM, depending on the operating conditions.

Bellows seals A common feature of bellows seals is a rubber or metal bellows which functions as dynamic sealing element between the rotating ring and the shaft.

Rubber bellows seals The bellows of a rubber bellows seal (see figure 1.3.10) can be made of different types of rubber material, such as NBR, EPDM and FKM, depending on the operating conditions. Two different geometric principles are used for the design of rubber bellows: • Folding bellows • Rolling bellows.

Advantages: Suitable in hot liquid and high pressure applications Disadvantages: Deposits on the shaft, such as rust, may prevent the O-ring shaft seal from moving axially

Rubber bellows seal with folding bellows geometry

Fig. 1.3.10: Rubber bellows seal Advantages and disadvantages of rubber bellows seal Advantages: Not sensitive to deposits, such as rust, on the shaft Suitable for pumping solid-containing liquids Disadvantages: Not suitable in hot liquid and high pressure applications

31

Section 1.3 Mechanical shaft seals

Advantages and disadvantages of cartridge metal bellows seal

Metal bellows seals In an ordinary mechanical shaft seal, the spring produces the closing force required to close the seal faces. In a metal bellows seal (figure 1.3.11) the spring has been replaced by a metal bellows with a similar force. Metal bellows act both as a dynamic seal between the rotating ring and the shaft and as a spring. The bellows have a number of corrugations to give them the desired spring force.

Advantages: Not sensitive to deposits, such as rust and lime on the shaft Suitable in hot liquid and high-pressure applications Low balancing ratio leads to low wear rate and consequently longer life Fig. 1.3.11: Cartridge metal bellows seal

Disadvantages: Fatique failure of the mechanical shaft seal may occur when the pump is not aligned correctly Fatique may occur as a result of excessive temperatures or pressures

Cartridge seals

Advantages of the cartridge seal:

In a cartridge mechanical shaft seal, all parts form a compact unit on a shaft sleeve, ready to be installed. A cartridge seal offers many benefits compared to conventional mechanical shaft seals, figure 1.3.12.

• Easy and fast service • The design protects the seal faces • Preloaded spring • Safe handling

Flushing In certain applications it is possible to extend the performance of the mechanical shaft seal by installing flushing, see figure 1.3.13. Flushing can lower the temperature of the mechanical shaft seal and prevent deposits from occurring. Flushing can be installed either internally or externally. Internal flushing is done when a small flow from the pump’s discharge side is bypassed to the seal area. Internal flushing is primarily used to prevent further heat generation from the seal in heating applications. External flushing is done by a flushing liquid and is used to ensure trouble-free operation when handling liquids that are abrasive or contain clogging solids.

32

Fig. 1.3.12: Cartridge seal

Fig 1.3.13: Flushing device of a single mechanical shaft seal

Double mechanical shaft seals Double mechanical shaft seals are used when the life span of single mechanical shaft seals is insufficient due to wear caused by solids or too high/low pressure and temperature. Further, double mechanical shaft seals are used in connection with toxic, aggressive and explosive liquids to protect the surroundings. Two types of double mechanical shaft seals exist: The double seal in a tandem arrangement and the double seal in a back-to-back arrangement.

Quench liquid

Quench liquid Quench liquid •

Pumped liquid

Double seal in tandem This type of double seal consists of two mechanical shaft seals mounted in tandem, that is one behind the other, placed in a separate seal chamber, see figure 1.3.14.





Pumped liquid



Pumped Tandem liquid Fig. 1.3.14: seal arrangement with quench liquid •



circulation

The seal type is used when a pressurised double mechanical shaft seal mounted in a back-to-back arrangement is not necessary. The tandem seal arrangement has to be fitted with a quenching liquid system which

Quench liquid

Quench liquid

• • • • • •

absorbs leakage monitors the leakage rate lubricates and cools the outboard seal to prevent icing protects against dry-running stabilises the lubricating film prevents air from entering the pump in case of vacuum

The pressure of the quenching liquid must always be lower than the pumped liquid pressure.

Quench liquid •

Pumped liquid





Pumped liquid





Pumped liquid



Fig. 1.3.15: Tandem seal arrangement with quench liquid dead end

Tandem - circulation Circulation of quenching liquid via a pressureless tank, see figure 1.3.14. Quenching liquid from the elevated tank is circulated by thermosiphon action and/or by pumping action in the seal.

Tandem - dead end Quenching liquid from an elevated tank, see figure 1.3.15. No heat is dissipated from the system.

Pumped liquid





Pumped liquid Pumped liquid









Tandem - drain The quenching liquid runs directly through the seal chamber to be collected for reuse, or directed to drain, see figure 1.3.16.

Fig. 1.3.16: Tandem seal arrangement with quench liquid to drain

33

Section 1.3 Mechanical shaft seals

Barrier pressure liquid

Seal chamber with barrier pressure liquid

1.3.4 Seal face material combinations What follows is a description of the most important material pairings used in mechanical shaft seals for industrial applications: Tungsten carbide/tungsten carbide, silicon carbide/silicon carbide and carbon/ tungsten carbide or carbon/silicon carbide. Pumped liquid

Tungsten carbide/tungsten carbide (WC/WC) •

Fig. 1.3.17: Back-to-back seal arrangement

Double seal in back-to-back This type of seal is the optimum solution for handling abrasive, aggressive, explosive or sticky liquids, which would either wear out, damage or block a mechanical shaft seal. The back-to-back double seal consists of two shaft seals mounted back-to-back in a separate seal chamber, see figure 1.3.17. The back-to-back double seal protects the surrounding environment and the people working with the pump. The pressure in the seal chamber must be 1-2 bar higher than the pump pressure. The pressure can be generated by:

• An existing, separate pressure source. Many applications incorporate pressurised systems.

• A separate pump, e.g. a dosing pump.

34

Cemented tungsten carbide covers the type of hard metals that are based on a hard tungsten carbide (WC) phase and usually a softer metallic binder phase. The correct technical term is cemented tungsten carbide, however, the abbreviated term tungsten carbide (WC) is used for convenience. Cobalt-bonded (Co) WC is only corrosion resistant in water if the pump incorporates base metal, such as cast iron. Chromium-nickel-molybdenum-bounded WC has a corrosion resistance equal to EN 14401. Sintered binderless WC has the highest corrosion resistance. However, its resistance to corrosion in liquids, such as hypochlorite, is not as high. The material pairing WC/WC has the following features:

• Extremely wear resistant • Very robust, resists rough handling • Poor dry-running properties. In case of dry-running, the temperature increases to several hundred degrees Celsius in very few minutes and consequently damages the O-rings. If a certain pressure and a certain temperature are exceeded, the seal may generate noise. Noise is an indication of poor seal operating conditions that in the long term may cause wear of the seal. The limits of use depend on seal face diameter and design. To a WC/WC seal face pairing, the running-in wear period where noise is to be expected may last 3-4 weeks, although typically, no noise occurs during the first 3-4 days.

Silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) Silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) is an alternative to WC/WC and is used where higher corrosion resistance is required . The SiC/SiC material pairing has the following features:

• Very brittle material requiring careful handling

Consequently, in warm water, the Q 1P / Q 1P face material pairing generates less noise than the WC/WC pairing. However, noise from porous SiC seals must be expected during the running-in wear period of 3-4 days. Q 1G self-lubricating, sintered SiC Several variants of SiC materials containing dry lubricants are available on the market. The designation Q1G applies to a SiC material, which is suitable for use in distilled or demineralised water, as opposed to the above materials.

• Extremely wear resistant • Extremely good corrosion resistance. SiC (Q , Q and s 1

P 1

Q 1G ) hardly corrodes, irrespective of the pumped liquid type. However, an exception is water with very poor conductivity, such as demineralised water, which attacks the SiC variants Q 1s and Q 1P, whereas Q 1G is corrosionresistant also in this liquid

• In general, these material pairings have poor dry-running properties however, the Q 1G / Q 1G material withstands a limited period of dry-running on account of the graphite content of the material For different purposes, various SiC/SiC variants exist: Q 1s, dense-sintered, fine-grained SiC A direct-sintered, fine-grained SiC with a small amount of tiny pores. For a number of years, this SiC variant was used as a standard mechanical shaft seal material. Pressure and temperature limits are slightly below those of WC/WC. P 1

Q , porous, sintered, fine-grained SiC A variant of the dense-sintered SiC. This SiC variant has large circular closed pores. The degree of porosity is 5-15% and the size of the pores 10-50 µm Ra. The pressure and temperature limits exceed those of WC/WC.

Pressure and temperature limits of Q 1G / Q 1G are similar to those of Q 1P / Q 1P. The dry lubricants, i.e. graphite, reduce the friction in case of dry-running, which is of decisive importance to the durability of a seal during dry-running.

Carbon/tungsten carbide or carbon/ silicon carbide features Seals with one carbon seal face have the following features:

• Brittle material requiring careful handling • Worn by liquids containing solid particles • Good corrosion resistance • Good dry-running properties (temporary dry-running) • The self-lubricating properties of carbon make the seal suitable for use even with poor lubricating conditions (high temperature) without generating noise. However, such conditions will cause wear of the carbon seal face leading to reduced seal life. The wear depends on the pressure, temperature, liquid diameter and seal design. Low speeds reduce the lubrication between the seal faces; as a result, increased wear might have been expected. However, this is normally not the case because the distance that the seal faces have to move is reduced.

35

Section 1.3 Mechanical shaft seals

• Metal-impregnated carbon (A) offers limited corro-

• The centrifugal pumping action of the rotating parts.

sion resistance, but improved mechanical strength, heat conductivity and thus reduced wear

The power consumption increases dramatically with the speed of rotation (to the third power).

• With reduced mechanical strength, but higher

• The seal face friction.

corrosion resistance, synthetic resin-impregnated carbon (B) covers a wide application field. Synthetic resin-impregnated carbon is approved for drinking water

• The use of carbon/SiC for hot water applications may cause heavy wear of the SiC, depending on the quality of the carbon and water. This type of wear primarily applies to Q1 S/carbon. The use of Q1 P, Q 1G or a carbon/WC pairing causes far less wear. Thus, carbon/WC, carbon/Q1P or carbon/Q1G are recommended for hot water systems

Friction between the two seal faces consists of – friction in the thin liquid film and – friction due to points of contact between the seal faces. The level of power consumption depends on seal design, lubricating conditions and seal face materials.

250

Power loss (W) 250 200

150

1.3.5 Factors affecting the seal performance

Power loss (W)

200

150

100

100

50

50

3600

3600

0

0 0

0 2000

2000 4000 4000

6000 6000

8000 8000

10000 10000

12000 12000

Speed (rpm)

Speed (rpm)

As mentioned previously, no seal is completely tight. On the next pages, we will present the following factors, which have an impact on the seal performance: Energy consumption, noise and leakage. These factors will be presented individually. However, it is important to stress that they are closely interrelated, and thus must be considered as a whole.

Energy consumption It comes as no surprise that power is needed to make the seal rotate. The following factors contribute to the power consumption, that is the power loss of a mechanical shaft seal:

36

Fig. 1.3.18: Power consumption of a 12 mm mechanical shaft seal

Pumping

Pumping action action Friction

Friction

Figure 1.3.18 is a typical example of the power consumption of a mechanical shaft seal. The figure shows that up to 3600 rpm friction is the major reason for the mechanical shaft seal’s energy consumption.

Energy consumption is, especially in connection with stuffing boxes, an important issue. As you can tell from the example, replacing a stuffing box by a mechanical shaft seal leads to considerable energy savings, see figure 1.3.19.

Standard pump 50 mLC; 50 mm shaft and 2900 rpm

Noise

2.0 kWh 0.3 kWh

Leakage Stuffing box Mechanical shaft seal

3.0 l/h (when mounted correctly) 0.8 ml/h

Fig. 1.3.19: Stuffing box versus mechanical shaft seal

Bar

The choice of seal face materials is decisive for the 25 function and the life of the mechanical shaft seal. Noise 20 is generated as a result of the poor lubricating conditions Duty range in seals handling low viscosity liquids. The viscosity 15 of water decreases with increasing temperature. This 10 means that the lubricating conditions decrease as the temperature rises. If the pumped liquid reaches or 5 exceeds boiling temperature, the liquid on part of the seal face evaporates, which results in a further decrease 0 10 20 30 in the lubricating conditions. A speed reduction has the same effect, see figure 1.3.20.

Energy consumption Stuffing box Mechanical shaft seal

Noise Bar

25

Noise

20

Duty range

15 40

50

60

70

80

10

90

100

110

°C

Speed at 3000 rpm Speed at 1800 rpm Speed at 1200 rpm

5

Speed at 600 rpm

Leakage The pumped liquid lubricates the seal face of a mechanical shaft seal. Thus, better lubrication means less friction and increased leakage. Conversely, less leakage means worse lubricating conditions and increased friction. In practice, the amount of leakage and power loss that occur in mechanical shaft seals can vary. The reason is that leakage depends on factors which are impossible to quantify theoretically because of type of seal faces, type of liquid, spring load, etc. Therefore, figure 1.3.21 should be perceived as a guideline.

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

°C

Fig. 1.3.20: Relation between duty range and speed Speed at 3000 rpm

Speed at 1800 rpm Speed at 1200 rpm 1

5

10

100

Differential pressure be sealed Speed at to600 rpm p (bar) 00 800 1

Dw (mm) 100 B B = balanced U = unbalanced

100 U

15

80 B n

00 00 30 1 ) 36 n i (m

80 U 60 B 60 U 40 B 40 U

30 B

30 U 20 B

To read the leakage rate curve correctly (figure 1.3.21), you have to go through four steps:

20 U

Step 1: Read the pressure - in this case 5 bar Step 2: 30 mm unbalanced shaft seal Step 3: Speed 3000 rpm

0.001

0.01

0.06 0.1

1

Leakage Q (ml/h)

Fig. 1.3.21: Leakage rates

Step 4: Leakage rate 0.06 ml/h

37

Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.4: Motors 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5

Standards Motor start-up Voltage supply Frequency converter Motor protection

Section 1.4 Motors

Motors are used in many applications all over the world. The purpose of the electric motor is to create rotation, that is to convert electric energy into mechanical energy. Pumps are operated by means of mechanical energy, which is provided by electric motors.

Fig. 1.4.1: Electric motor

1.4.1 Standards

Fig. 1.4.2: NEMA and IEC standards

40

NEMA

IEC

The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) sets standards for a wide range of electric products, including motors. NEMA is primarily associated with motors used in North America. The standards represent general industry practices and are supported by the manufacturers of electric equipment. The standards can be found in NEMA Standard Publication No. MG1. Some large motors may not fall under NEMA standards.

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) sets standards for motors used in many countries around the world. The IEC 60034 standard contains recommended electrical practices that have been developed by the participating IEC countries.

ATEX (ATmosphère EXplosible) refers to two EU directives about danger of explosion within different areas. The ATEX directive concerns electrical, mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic equipment. As to the mechanical equipment, the safety requirements in the ATEX directive ensure that pump components, such as shaft seals and bearings do not heat up and ignite gas and dust. The first ATEX directive (94/9/EC) deals with requirements put on equipment for use in areas with danger of explosion. The manufacturer has to fulfil the requirements and mark his products with categories. The second ATEX directive (99/92/EC) deals with the minimum safety and health requirements that the user has to fulfil, when working in areas with danger of explosion. Different techniques are used to prevent electric equipment from becoming a source of ignition. In the case of electric motors, protection types d (flameproof), e (increased safety) and nA (non-sparking) are applied in connection with gas, and DIP (dust ignition proof) is applied in connection with dust.

Manufacturer

User

Directives and methods of protection – Ex-motors

Category 3 equipment (3G/3D) Zone: 2 or 22

Constant danger Potentiel Fig 1.4.3: The link danger between zones and equipment categories is Minor a minimum requirement. danger If the national rules are more strict, they are the ones to follow.

Zone: 1 or 21

Category 2 equipment (2G/2D) Zone: 0 or 20 Zone: 1 or 21

Category 1 equipment (1G/1D) Zone: 2 or 22

Zones: Gas (G): 0, 1 and 2 Dust (D): 20, 21 and 22

Fig 1.4.4: The explosion occurs inside the motor and is lead out of the motor through the flame paths. The temperature classification for flameproof EExd motors is valid for external surfaces.

Flameproof motors - protection type EExd (de) First of all, flameproof EExd (type de) motors are category 2G equipment for use in zone 1. The stator housing and the flanges enclose the flameproof motor parts that can ignite a potentially explosive atmosphere. Because of the enclosure, the motor can withstand the pressure that goes along with the explosion of an explosive mixture inside the motor. Propagation of the explosion to the atmosphere that surrounds the enclosure is hereby avoided because the explosion is cooled down by means of flame paths. The size of the flame paths is defined in the EN 50018 standard. The surface temperature of the flameproof enclosure should always be in accordance with the temperature classes.

Fig 1.4.5: For increased safety motors EExe, no sparks may occur. The temperature classification covers both internal and external surfaces.

Increased safety motors - protection type EEx (e) Increased safety motors (type e) are category 2G equipment for use in zone 1. These motors are not flameproof and not built to withstand an internal explosion. The construction of such a motor is based on increased security against

Fig 1.4.6: With non-sparking motors ExnA, no ignition is likely to occur.

41 5

Section 1.4 Motors

possible excessive temperatures and occurrence of sparks and arcs during normal operation and when a predictable error occurs. The temperature classification for increased safety motors is valid for both internal and external surfaces, and therefore, it is important to observe the stator winding temperature.

2D/category 2 equipment

Non-sparking motors (type nA) are category 3G equipment for use in zone 2. These motors cannot by any means ignite a potential explosive atmosphere under normal operation, see figure 1.4.6.

In order to avoid static electricity to cause ignition, the cooling fan on a category 2 DIP motor for use in zone 21 (area with potential danger of explosion) is made of metal. Likewise, to minimise the risk of ignition, the external ground terminal is subject to more severe demands of construction. The external surface temperature of the enclosure, which is indicated on the motor nameplate and corresponds to the running performance during the worst conditions allowed for the motor. Motors for use in zone 21 (areas with potential danger of explosion) have to be IP65 protected, that is completely protected against dust.

Dust Ignition Proof (DIP)

3D/category 3 equipment

Non-sparking motors - protection type Ex (nA)

Two types of Dust Ignition Proof motors exist: 2D/category 2 equipment and 3D/category 3 equipment.

Type of protection

Standar ds Code CENELEC IEC EN

60079

Use in A TEX category/ Zone

The temperature indicated on a category 3 DIP motor for use in zone 22 (areas with minor danger of explosion)

Principle

Application

General requirements

-

50014

-0

-

Basic electrical requirements

All equipment

Oil immersion

o

50015

-6

Category 2 Zone 1

Electrical components immersed in oil excluding explosive atmosphere from igniting

Transformers

Pressurised

p

50016

-2

Category 2 Zone 1

Enclosure housing equipment is purged to remove explosive atmosphere and pressurised to prevent ingress of surrounding atmosphere

Switching and control cabinets, large motors

Powder filled

q

50017

-5

Category 2 Zone 1

Electrical parts are surrounded with power, e.g. quartz to prevent contact with an explosive atmosphere

Electronic devices, e.g. capacitors, fuses

Flameproof

d

50018

-1

Category 2 Zone 1

Enclosure housing electrical equipment which, if there is an internal explosion, will not ignite surrounding atmosphere

AC motors, control panels, light fittings

Increased safety

e

50019

-7

Category 2 Zone 1

Additional methods are used to eliminate arcs, sparks and hot surface capable of igniting flammable atmosphere

AC motors, terminal and connection boxes, light fittings, squirrel cage motors

ia

50020

- 11

Category 1 Zone 0

ib

50020

- 11

Category 2 Zone 1

Electrical energy in equipment is limited so that circuits cannot ignite an atmosphere by sparking or heating

Measurement and control equipment, e.g. sensors, instrumentation

Encapsulation

m

50028

- 18

Category 2 Zone 1

Electrical components embedded in approved material to prevent contact with explosive atmosphere

Measurement and control devices, solenoid valves

Type of protection n

nA

50021

- 15

Category 3 Zone 2

Non-arcing and non-sparking

AC motors, terminal boxes, light fittings

Intrinsic safety

Note: Group II Dust atmospher es ar e covered by CENELEC EN 50281-1-1 and EN50281-1-2

Fig 1.4.7: Standards and methods of protection

42

corresponds to the running performance under the worst conditions allowed for that specific motor. A motor for use in zone 22 has to be IP55 protected, that is protected against dust. The IP protection is the only difference between 2D/category 2 equipment and 3D/category 3 equipment.

Mounting (International Mounting - IM)

Foot-mounted motor

Flange-mounted motor with free-hole flange

IM B3

IM B5

IM B14

IM 1001

IM 3001

IM 3601

IM B35

IM V1 IM 3011

IM V18 IM 3611

IM 2001

Three different ways of mounting the motor exist: Footmounted motor, flange-mounted motor with free-hole flange (FF) and flange-mounted motor with tapped-hole flange (FT). Figure 1.4.8 shows the different ways of mounting a motor and the standards that apply for the mountings. The mounting of motors is stated according to the following standards:

• IEC 60034-7, Code I, i.e. designation IM followed by the previously used DIN 42590 code

• IEC 60034-7, Code II

Enclosure class (Ingress Protection - IP) The enclosure class states the degrees of protection of the motor against ingress of solid objects and water. The enclosure class is stated by means of two letters IP followed by two digits, for example IP55. The first digit stands for protection against contact and ingress of solid objects and the second digit stands for protection against ingress of water, see figure 1.4.9. Drain holes enable the escape of water which has entered the stator housing for instance through condensation. When the motor is installed in a damp environment, the bottom drain hole should be opened. Opening the drain hole changes the motor’s enclosure class from IP55 to IP44.

Flange-mounted motor with tapped-hole flange

Fig 1.4.8: Different mounting methods

First digit

Second digit

Protection against contact and ingress of solid objects

Protection against ingress of water

0 No special protection

0 No special protection

1 The motor is protected against solid objects bigger than 55 mm, e.g. a hand

1 The motor is protected against vertically falling drops of water, such as condensed water

2 The motor is protected against objects bigger than 12 mm, e.g. a finger

2 The motor is protected against vertically falling drops of water, even if the motor is tilted at an angle of 15°

3 The motor is protected against solid objects bigger than 25 mm, i.e. wires, tools, etc. 4 The motor is protected against solid objects bigger than 1 mm, e.g. wires 5 The motor is protected against the ingress of dust 6 The motor is completely dust-proof

3 The motor is protected against water spray falling at an angle of 60° from vertical 4 The motor is protected against water splashing from any direction 5 The motor is protected against water being projected from a nozzle from any direction 6 The motor is protected against heavy seas or high-pressure water jets from any direction 7 The motor is protected when submerged from 15 cm to 1 m in water for a period specified by the manufacturer 8 The motor is protected against continuous submersion in water under conditions specified by the manufacturer

Fig 1.4.9: The enclosure class is stated by means of two digits IP followed by two letters; for example IP55

43

Section 1.4 Motors

Frame size

Flanges and shaft end comply with EN 50347 and IEC 60072-1. Some pumps have a coupling, which requires a smooth motor shaft end or a special shaft extension which is not defined in the standards.

100mm

Figure 1.4.11 gives an overview of the relation between frame size, shaft end, motor power and flange type and size. For motors in frame sizes 63 up to and including 315M, the relationship is specified in EN 50347. For motors with frame size 315L and larger, no standard covers this relation. The figure shows where on the motor the different values that make up the frame size are measured.

B3

IEC 100L (In this case L = 140mm)

Distance between holes

Fig 1.4.10: Frame size

Insulation class The insulation class is defined in the IEC 60085 standard and tells something about how robust the insulation system is to temperatures. The life of an insulation material is highly dependent on the temperature to which it is exposed. The various insulation materials and systems are classified into insulation classes depending on their ability to resist high temperatures.

140mm

Hot-spot overtemperature [˚C] 180

15

155

10

130 120

10

Maximum temperature increase

80

105

125

Maximum ambient temperature

40

40

40

B

F

H

40

Class

Maximum ambient temperature (˚C)

Maximum temperature increase (K)

Hot-spot overtemperature (K)

Maximum winding temperature (Tmax) (˚C)

B

40

80

10

130

F

40

105

10

155

H

40

125

15

180

Fig 1.4.12: Different insulation classes and their temperature increase at nominal voltage and load

44

Fig 1.4.11: The relation between frame size and power input

1 Frame size

2 Shaft end diameter

3 Rated power

4 Flange size

2-pole

4-, 6-, 8-pole

2-pole

4-pole

6-pole

8-pole

Free-hole flange

Tapped-hole flange

[mm]

[mm]

[kW]

[kW]

[kW]

[kW]

(FF)

(FT)

56

9

9

0.09; 0.12

0.06;0.09

FF100

FT65

63

11

11

0.18; 0.25

0.12 ; 0.18

FF115

FT75

71

14

14

0.37; 0.55

0.25; 0.37

FF130

FT85

80

19

19

0.75; 1.1

0.55; 0.75

0.37; 0.55

90S

24

24

1.5

1.1

0.75

FF165

FT100

0.37

FF165

FT115

90L

24

24

2.2

1.5

1.1

0.55

FF165

FT115

100L

28

28

3

2.2; 3

1.5

0.75; 1.1

FF215

FT130

112M

28

28

4

4

2.2

1.5

FF215

FT130

132S

38

38

5.5; 7.5

5.5

3

2.2

FF265

FT165

132M

38

38

-

7.5

4; 5.5

3

FF265

FT165

160M

42

42

11; 15

11

7.5

4; 5.5

FF300

FT215 FT215

160L

42

42

18.5

15

11

7.5

FF300

180M

48

48

22

18.5

-

-

FF300

180L

48

48

-

22

15

11

FF300

200L

55

55

30; 37

30

18.5; 22

15

FF350

225S

55

60

-

37

30

18.5

FF400

225M

55

60

45

45

-

22

FF400

250M

60

65

55

55

37

30

FF500

280S

65

75

75

75

45

37

FF500

280M

65

75

90

90

55

45

FF500

315S

65

80

110

110

75

55

FF600

315M

65

80

132

132

90

75

FF600

315L

65

80

160; 200; 250

355

75

100

315; 355; 400; 450; 500

400

80

100

560; 630; 710

560; 630; 710

FF840

450

90

120

800; 900; 1000

800; 900; 1000

FF940

FF600 315; 355; 400; 450; 500

FF740

45

Section 1.4 Motors

1.4.2 Motor start-up We distinguish between different ways of starting up the motor: Direct-on-line starting, star/delta starting, autotransformer starting, soft starter and frequency converter starting. Each of these methods have their pros and cons, see figure 1.4.13. Fig 1.4.13: Starting method

Starting method

Pros

Cons

Direct-on-line starting (DOL)

Simple and cost-efficient. Safe starting.

High locked-rotor current.

Star/delta starting (SD) (Y/∆)

Reduction of starting current by factor 3.

Current pulses when switching over from star to delta. Not suitable if the load has a low inertia. Reduced locked-rotor torque.

Autotransformer starting

Reduction of locked-rotor current and torque.

Current pulses when switching from reduced to full voltage. Reduced locked-rotor torque.

Soft starter

"Soft" starting. No current pulses. Less water hammer when starting a pump. Reduction of locked-rotor current as required, typically 2-3 times.

Reduced locked-rotor torque.

Frequency converter starting

No current pulses. Less water hammer when starting a pump. Reduction of locked-rotor current as required, typically 2 to 3 times. Can be used for continuous feeding of the motor.

Reduced locked-rotor torque. Expensive

Direct-on-line starting (DOL)

Autotransformer starting

As the name suggests, direct-on-line starting means that the motor is started by connecting it directly to the supply at rated voltage. Direct-on-line starting is suitable for stable supplies and mechanically stiff and well-dimensioned shaft systems, for example pumps. Whenever applying the direct-on-line starting method, it is important to consult local authorities.

As the name states, autotransformer starting makes use of an autotransformer. The autotransformer is placed in series with the motor during start and varies the voltage up to nominal voltage in two to four steps.

Star/delta starting

A soft starter is, as you would expect, a device which ensures a soft start of a motor. This is done by raising the voltage to a preset voltage raise time.

The objective of this starting method, which is used with three-phase induction motors, is to reduce the starting current. In one position, current supply to the stator windings is connected in star (Y) for starting. In other positions, current supply is reconnected to the windings in delta (∆) once the motor has gained speed.

46

Soft starter

Frequency converter starting Frequency converters are designed for continuous feeding of motors, but they can also be used for soft starting.

1.4.3 Voltage supply The motor’s rated voltage lies within a certain voltage range. Figure 1.4.14 shows typical voltage examples for 50 Hz and 60 Hz motors. According to the international standard IEC 60038, the motor has to be able to operate with a main voltage tolerance of ± 10%. For motors that are designed according to the IEC 600341 standard with a wide voltage range, e.g. 380-415 V, the main voltage may have a tolerance of ± 5%. The permissible maximum temperature for the actual insulation class is not exceeded when the motor is operated within the rated voltage range. For conditions at the extreme boundaries the temperature typically rises approx. 10 Kelvin.

1.4.4 Frequency converter Frequency converters are often used for speed controlling pumps, see chapter 4. The frequency converter converts the mains voltage into a new voltage and frequency, causing the motor to run at a different speed. This way of regulating the frequency might result in some problems:

Typical voltage examples 50 Hz 50 Hz motors come with the following voltages: • 3 x 220 – 240 ∆/ 380 – 415 Y • 3 x 200 – 220 ∆ / 346 – 380 Y • 3 x 200 ∆/ 346 Y • 3 x 380 – 415 ∆ • 1 x 220 – 230 / 240 60 Hz 60 Hz motors come with the following voltages: • 3 x 200 – 230 ∆ / 346 – 400 Y • 3 x 220 – 255 ∆ / 380 – 440 Y • 3 x 220 – 277 ∆ / 380 – 480 Y • 3 x 200 – 230 ∆ / 346 – 400 Y • 3 x 380 – 480 ∆ Fig 1.4.14: Typical voltages

Mains voltage according to IEC 60038 50 Hz + 10% 230 V _

60 Hz -

+ 10% 400 V _ + 10% 690 V _ -

+ 10% 460 V _

Fig 1.4.15: Mains voltage according to IEC 60038

• Acoustic noise from the motor, which is sometimes transmitted to the system as disturbing noise

• High voltage peaks on the output from the frequency converter to the motor

47

Section 1.4 Motors

Insulation for motors with frequency converter

Phase insulation also referred to as phase paper

In connection with motors with frequency converters we distinguish between different kinds of motors, with different kinds of insulation.

Motors without phase insulation For motors constructed without the use of phase insulation, continuous voltages (RMS) above 460 V can increase the risk of disruptive discharges in the windings and thus destruction of the motor. This applies to all motors constructed according to these principles. Continuous operation with voltage peaks above 650 V can cause damage to the motor.

Motors with phase insulation In three-phase motors, phase insulation is normally used and consequently, specific precautions are not necessary if the voltage supply is smaller than 500 V.

Motors with reinforced insulation In connection with supply voltages between 500 and 690 V, the motor has to have reinforced insulation or be protected with delta U /delta t filters. For supply voltages of 690 V and higher the motor has to be fitted with both reinforced insulation and delta U /delta t filters.

Motors with insulated bearings In order to avoid harmful current flows through the bearings, the motor bearings have to be electrically insulated. This applies for motors from frame size 280 and up.

48

Fig 1.4.16: Stator with phase insulation

Motor efficiency Generally speaking, electric motors are quite efficient. Some motors have electricity-to-shaft power efficiencies of 80-93% depending on the motor size and sometimes even higher for bigger motors. Two types of energy losses in electric motors exist: Load dependent losses and load independent losses. Load dependent losses vary with the square of the current and cover:

• Stator winding losses (copper losses) • Rotor losses (slip losses) • Stray losses (in different parts of the motor)

Motors can fail because of overload for a longer period of time and therefore most motors are intentionally oversized and only operate at 75% to 80% of their full load capacity. At this level of loading, motor efficiency and power factor remain relatively high. But when the motor load is less than 25%, the efficiency and the power factor decrease. The motor efficiency drops quickly below a certain percentage of the rated load. Therefore, it is important to size the motor so that the losses associated with running the motor too far below its rated capacity are minimised. It is common to choose a pump motor that meets the power requirements of the pump.

1.4.5 Motor protection

Load independent losses in the motor refer to:

• Iron losses (core losses) • Mechanical losses (friction)

100

0.8

80

0.6

60

0.4

Percent

1

The type of thermal protection varies with the motor type. The construction of the motor together with the power consumption must be taken into consideration when choosing thermal protection. Generally speaking, motors have to be protected against the following conditions:

40

0.2

20

Fig 1.4.17: Efficiency vs. load power factor vs. load (schematic drawing)

Efficiency Power factor 0

25

50 75 100 125 Percent of rated load

100

150

75 kW

90

7.5 kW

80

0.75 kW

70 60

Efficiency %

Cos ϕ

Different motor classifications categorise motors according to efficiency. The most important are CEMEP in the EU (EFF1, EFF2 and EFF3) and EPAct in the US.

Motors are nearly always protected against reaching temperatures, which can damage the insulation system. Depending on the construction of the motor and the application, thermal protection can also have other functions, e.g. prevent damaging temperatures in the frequency converter if it is mounted on the motor.

Errors causing slow temperature increases in the windings: • Slow overload • Long start-up periods • Reduced cooling / lack of cooling • Increased ambient temperature • Frequent starts and stops • Frequency fluctuation • Voltage fluctuation

50

Fig 1.4.18: The relation between efficiency and rated load of different sized motors (schematic drawing)

40 30 20 10 0

0

25

50

100 125 75 Percent of rated load

150

Errors causing fast temperature increases in the windings: • Blocked rotor • Phase failure

175

49

Thermal protection (TP)

Thermal switch and thermostats

According to the IEC 60034-11 standard, the thermal protection of the motor has to be indicated on the nameplate with a TP designation. Figure 1.4.19 shows an overview of the TP designations. Symbol TP 111 TP 112 TP 121 TP 122 TP 211 TP 212 TP 221 TP 222 TP 311 TP 312

Technical overload with variation (1 digit) Only slow (i.e. constant overload) Slow and fast (i.e. constant overload and blocked condition ) Only fast (i.e. blocked condition)

Number af levels and function area (2 digits)

Category 1 (3 digits)

1 level at cutoff

1 2 1 2

2 levels at emergency signal and cutoff 1 level at cutoff 2 levels at emergency signal and cutoff 1 level at cutoff

1 2 1 2 1 2

Indication of the permissible temperature level when the motor is exposed to thermal overload. Category 2 allows higher temperatures than category 1 does.

Fig 1.4.19: TP designations

PTC thermistors PTC thermistors (Positive Temperature Coefficient Thermistors) can be fitted into the windings of a motor during production or retrofitted afterwards. Usually 3 PTCs are fitted in series; 1 in each phase of the winding. They can be purchased with trip temperatures ranging from 90°C to 180°C in 5 degrees steps. PTCs have to be connected to a thermistor relay, which detects the rapid increase in resistance of the thermistor when it reaches its trip temperature. These devices are non-linear. At ambient temperatures the resistance of a set of 3 will be about 200300 ohms and this will increase rapidly when the thermistor reaches its trip temperature. If the temperature increases any further, the PTC thermistor can reach several thousand ohms. The thermistor relays are usually set to trip at 3000 ohms or are preset to trip according to what the DIN 44082 standard prescribes. The TP designation for PTCs for motors smaller than 11kW is TP211 if the PTCs are fitted into the windings. If the PTCs are retrofitted the TP designation is TP111. The TP designation for PTCs for motors larger than 11kW is normally TP111.

50

Thermal switches are small bi-metallic switches that switch due to the temperature. They are available with a wide range of trip temperatures; normally open and closed types. The most common type is the closed one. One or two, in series, are usually fitted in the windings like thermistors and can be connected directly to the circuit of the main contactor coil. In that way no relay is necessary. This type of protection is cheaper than thermistors, but on the other hand, it is less sensitive and is not able to detect a locked rotor failure. Thermal switches are also referred to as Thermik, Klixon switches and PTO (Protection Thermique à Ouverture). Thermal switches always carry a TP111 designation.

Single-phase motors Single-phase motors normally come with incorporated thermal protection. Thermal protection usually has an automatic reclosing. This implies that the motor has to be connected to the mains in a way that ensures that accidents caused by the automatic reclosing are avoided.

Three-phase motors Three-phase motors have to be protected according to local regulations. This kind of motor has usually incorporated contacts for resetting in the external control circuit.

Standstill heating A heating element ensures the standstill heating of the motor. The heating element is especially used in connection with applications that struggle with humidity and condensation. By using the standstill heating, the motor is warmer than the surroundings and thereby the relative air humidity inside the motor is always lower than 100%.

The fixed bearing in the drive end can be either a deepgroove ball bearing or an angular contact bearing. Bearing clearances and tolerances are stated according to ISO 15 and ISO 492. Because bearing manufacturers have to fulfil these standards, bearings are internationally interchangeable. In order to rotate freely, a ball bearing must have a certain internal clearance between the raceway and the balls. Without this internal clearance, the bearings can either be difficult to rotate or it may even seize up and be unable to rotate. On the other hand, too much internal clearance will result in an unstable bearing that may generate excessive noise or allow the shaft to wobble. Depending on which pump type the motor is fitted, the deep-groove ball bearing in the drive end must have C3 or C4 clearance. Bearings with C4 clearance are less heat sensitive and have increased axial load-carrying capacity.

1.4.20: Stator with heating element

Maintenance The motor should be checked at regular intervals. It is important to keep the motor clean in order to ensure adequate ventilation. If the pump is installed in a dusty environment, the pump must be cleaned and checked regularly.

The bearing carrying the axial forces of the pump can have C3 clearance if:

• the pump has complete or partial hydraulic relief • the pump has many brief periods of operation • the pump has long idle periods C4 bearings are used for pumps with fluctuating high axial forces. Angular contact bearings are used if the pump exerts strong one-way axial forces. Drive end

Non-drive end

Bearings Normally, motors have a locked bearing in the drive end and a bearing with axial play in the non-drive end. Axial play is required due to production tolerances, thermal expansion during operation, etc. The motor bearings are held in place by wave spring washers in the non-drive end, see figure 1.4.21.

Spring washer

Non-drive end bearing

Drive end bearing

Fig 1.4.21: Cross-sectional drawing of motor

51

Section 1.4 Motors

Axial forces

Bearing types and recommended clearance Drive-end

Non-drive-end

Moderate to strong forces. Primarily outward pull on the shaft end

Fixed deep-groove ball bearing (C4)

Deep-groove ball bearing (C3)

Strong outward pull on the shaft end

Fixed angular contact bearing

Deep-groove ball bearing (C3)

Fixed deep-groove ball bearing (C3)

Deep-groove ball bearing (C3)

Small forces (flexible coupling)

Fixed deep-groove ball bearing (C3)

Deep-groove ball bearing (C3)

Strong inward pressure

Deep-groove ball bearing (C4)

Fixed angular contact bearing

Moderate forces. Primarily outward pull on the shaft end (partly hydraulically relieved in the pump)

Fig:1.4.22: Typical types of bearings in pump motors

Motors with permanently lubricated bearings For closed permanently lubricated bearings, use one of the following high temperature resistant types of grease:

• Lithium-based grease • Polyurea-based grease The technical specifications must correspond to the standard DIN - 51825 K2 or better. The basic oil viscosity must be higher than:

• 50 cSt (10-6m2/sec) at 40°C and • 8 cSt (mm2/sec) at 100°C For example Klüberquiet BQH 72-102 with a grease filling ratio of: 30 - 40%.

Motors with lubrication system Normally, frame size 160 motors and upwards have lubricating nipples for the bearings both in the drive end and the non-drive end.

52

The lubricating nipples are visible and easily accessible. The motor is designed in such a way that:

• there is a flow of grease around the bearing • new grease enters the bearing • old grease is removed from the bearing Motors with lubricating systems are supplied with a lubricating instruction, for instance as a label on the fan cover. Apart from that, instructions are given in the installation and operating instructions. The lubricant is often lithium-based, high temperature grease, for instance EXXON UNIREX N3 or Shell Alvania Grease G3. The basic oil viscosity must be • higher than 50 cSt (10-6m2/sec) at 40°C and • 8 cSt (mm2/sec) at 100°C

Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.5: Liquids 1.5.1 Viscous liquids 1.5.2 Non-Newtonian liquids 1.5.3 The impact of viscous liquids on the performance of a centrifugal pump 1.5.4 Selecting the right pump for a liquid with antifreeze 1.5.5 Calculation example 1.5.6 Computer aided pump selection for dense and viscous liquids

Section 1.5 Liquids

1.5.1 Viscous liquids There is no doubt about it; water is the most common liquid that pumps handle. However, in a number of applications, pumps have to handle other types of liquids, e.g. oil, propylene glycol, gasoline. Compared to water, these types of liquids have different density and viscosity. Viscosity is a measure of the thickness of the liquid. The higher the viscosity, the thicker the liquid. Propylene glycol and motor oil are examples of thick or high viscous liquids. Gasoline and water are examples of thin, low viscous liquids. Two kinds of viscosity exist: • The dynamic viscosity (µ), which is normally measured in Pa⋅s or Poise. (1 Poise = 0.1 Pa⋅s)

µ ρ

ν=

• The kinematic viscosity (ν), which is normally measured in centiStokes or m2/s (1 cSt = 10-6 m2/s)

ρ = density of liquid

The relation between the dynamic viscosity (µ) and the kinematic viscosity (ν) is shown in the formula on your right hand side. On the following pages, we will only focus on kinematic viscosity (ν). The viscosity of a liquid changes considerably with the change in temperature; hot oil is thinner than cold oil. As you can tell from figure 1.5.1, a 50% propylene glycol liquid increases its viscosity 10 times when the temperature changes from +20 to –20 oC. For more information concerning liquid viscosity, go to appendix L.

54

Liquid

Liquid Density temperature ρ [kg/m3] t [˚C]

Kinematic viscosity ν [cSt]

998

1.004

20

733

0.75

20

900

93

Water

20

Gasoline Olive oil 50% Propylene glycol

20

1043

6.4

50% Propylene glycol

-20

1061

68.7

Fig. 1.5.1: Comparison of viscosity values for water and a few other liquids. Density values and temperatures are also shown

1.5.2 Non-Newtonian liquids The liquids discussed so far are referred to as Newtonian fluids. The viscosity of Newtonian liquids is not affected by the magnitude and the motion that they are exposed to. Mineral oil and water are typical examples of this type of liquid. On the other hand, the viscosity of non-Newtonian liquids does change when agitated. This calls for a few examples: • Dilatant liquids like cream – the viscosity increases when agitated • Plastic fluids like catsup – have a yield value, which has to be exceeded before flow starts. From that point on, the viscosity decreases with an increase in agitation • Thixotrophic liquids like non-drip paint - exhibit a decreasing viscosity with an increase in agitation

• • • • • • •

Lower freezing point, tf [°C] Lower specific heat, cp [kJ/kg.K] Lower thermal conductivity, λ [W/m.K] Higher boiling point, tb [°C] Higher coefficient of expansion, β [m/°C] Higher density, ρ [kg/m3] Higher kinematic viscosity, ν [cSt]

These properties have to be kept in mind when designing a system and selecting pumps. As mentioned earlier, the higher density requires increased motor power and the higher viscosity reduces pump head, flow rate and efficiency resulting in a need for increased motor power, see figure 1.5.2.

H, P, η

P

The non-Newtonian liquids are not covered by the viscosity formula described earlier in this section.

1.5.3 The impact of viscous liquids on the performance of a centrifugal pump

H

η

Viscous liquids, that is liquids with higher viscosity and/ or higher density than water, affect the performance of centrifugal pumps in different ways: • Power consumption increases, i.e. a larger motor may be required to perform the same task

Q Fig. 1.5.2: Changed head, efficiency and power input for liquid with higher viscosity

• Head, flow rate and pump efficiency are reduced Let us have a look at an example. A pump is used for pumping a liquid in a cooling system with a liquid temperature below 0oC. To avoid that the liquid freezes, an antifreeze agent like propylene glycol is added to the water. When glycol or a similar antifreeze agent is added to the pumped liquid, the liquid obtains properties, different from those of water. The liquid will have:

55

Section 1.5 Liquids

1.5.4 Selecting the right pump for a liquid with antifreeze

KH

1.35 1.30

cSt 100

1.25

40

1.15

cSt

1.20

60

Pump characteristics are usually based on water at around 20°C, i.e. a kinematic viscosity of approximately 1 cSt and a density of approximately 1,000 kg/m³. When pumps are used for liquids containing antifreeze below 0°C, it is necessary to examine whether the pump can supply the required performance or whether a larger motor is required. The following section presents a simplified method used to determine pump curve corrections for pumps in systems that have to handle a viscosity between 5 - 100 cSt and a density of maximum 1,300 kg/m³. Please notice that this method is not as precise as the computer aided method described later in this section.

t

cS

1.10 1.05

20 cS t 10 cSt 5 cS t

1.00 KP2

Pump curve corrections for pumps handling high viscous liquid Based on knowledge about required duty point, QS, HS, and kinematic viscosity of the pumped liquid, the correction factors of H and P2 can be found, see figure 1.5.3.

1.9 1.8 1.7 10

1.6

0

1.5

cS

t

60 c

St

1.4

40 cSt 20 c St 10 c St

1.3 1.2 1.1

5 cSt

1.0 0.9 Q [m3/h]

140 130 0m

H

100

=2

H=

10

m

120 110 90

0

H

80

=4

H=

70

m m 60

60 50 40 30 20 10

H

=6

m

0

Fig. 1.5.3: It is possible to determine the correction factor for head and power consumption at different flow, head and viscosity values

56

Figure 1.5.3 is read in the following way: H

When kH and kP2 are found in the figure, the equivalent head for clean water HW and the corrected actual shaft power P2S can be calculated by the following formula Hw = kH . HS

HW = kH . HS

Hw Hs

ρs ρw

( )

P2S = kP2 . P2w .

HS : is the desired head of the pumped liquid (with agents)

1 Mixture

Qs

where HW : is the equivalent head of the pump if the pumped liquid is “clean” water P2W : is the shaft power at the duty point (QS,HW) when the pumped liquid is water

Water

2

Q 3

P P2s

P2S = KP2 . P2w .

( ρρ ws )

P2w

5 4

Mixture

Water

P2S : is the shaft power at the duty point (Qs,Hs) when the pumped liquid is water (with agents) ρs : is the density of the pumped liquid

Q Fig. 1.5.4: Pump curve correction when choosing the right pump for the system

ρw : is the density of water = 998 kg/m3

The pump and motor selecting procedure contains the following steps:

The pump selection is based on the normal data sheets/ curves applying to water. The pump should cover the duty point Q,H = QS,HW, and the motor should be powerful enough to handle P2S on the shaft.

• Calculate the corrected head Hw (based on HS and kH), see figure 1.5.4 1-2

Figure 1.5.4 shows how to proceed when selecting a pump and testing whether the motor is within the power range allowed.

• Choose a pump capable of providing performance according to the corrected duty point (QS, HW) • Read the power input P2W in the duty point (QS,Hw), see figure 1.5.4 3-4 • Based on P2W , kP2 , ρW , and ρS calculate the corrected required shaft power P2S , see figure 1.5.4 4-5 • Check if P2S < P2 MAX of the motor. If that is the case the motor can be used. Otherwise select a more powerful motor

57

Section 1.5 Liquids

1.5.5 Calculation example A circulator pump in a refrigeration system is to pump a 40% (weight) propylene glycol liquid at –10°C. The desired flow is QS = 60 m3/h, and the desired head is HS = 12 m. Knowing the required duty point, it is possible to find the QHcharacteristic for water and choose a pump, which is able to cover the duty point. Once we have determined the needed pump type and size we can check if the pump is fitted with a motor, which can handle the specific pump load. The liquid has kinematic viscosity of 20 cSt and a density of 1049 kg/m3. With QS = 60 m3/h, HS = 12 m and ν = 20 cSt, the correction factors can be found in figure 1.5.3.

1.5.6 Computer aided pump selection for dense and viscous liquids Some computer aided pump selection tools include a feature that compensates for the pump performance curves based on input of the liquid density and viscosity. Figure 1.5.5 shows the pump performance curves from the example we just went through. The figure shows both the performance curves for the pump when it handles viscous liquid (the full lines) and the performance curves when it handles water (the broken lines). As indicated head, flow and efficiency are reduced, resulting in an increase in power consumption. The value of P2 is 3.4 kW, which corresponds to the result we got in the calculation example in section 1.5.4.

kH = 1.03 kP2 = 1.15 HW = kH · HS = 1.03 · 12 = 12.4 m QS = 60 m3/h

η

H [m]

[%]

14 12 10

The pump has to be able to cover a duty point equivalent to Q,H = 60 m3/h, 12.4m. Once the necessary pump size is determined, the P2 value for the duty point is found, which in this case is P2W = 2.9 kW. Now it is possible to calculate the required motor power for propylene glycol mixture:

8 70 6 4 2 0

0 P2 [kW]

P2S = kP2 . P2w .

ρS ρw

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80 Q [m3/h]

4 3 2 1 0

1049 P2S = 1.15 . 2.9 . 998

Q [m3/h]

= 3.5 kW

The calculation shows, that the pump has to be fitted with a 4 kW motor, which is the smallest motor size able to cover the calculated P2S = 3.5 kW.

58

Fig. 1.5.5: Pump performance curves

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.6: Materials 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.6.4 1.6.5 1.6.6 1.6.7

What is corrosion? Types of corrosion Metal and metal alloys Ceramics Plastics Rubber Coatings

Section 1.6 Materials

In this section you can read about different materials that are used for pump construction. Our main focus will be on the features that every single metal and metal alloy have to offer. But before we dig any further into the world of materials, we will have a closer look at corrosion. Besides explaining what corrosion is, we will examine the different types of corrosion and what can be done to prevent corrosion from occurring.

1.6.1 What is corrosion? Corrosion is usually referred to as the degradation of the metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment, see figure 1.6.1. When considered broadly, corrosion may be looked upon as the tendency of the metal to revert to its natural state similar to the oxide from which it was originally melted. Only precious metals, such as gold and platinum are found in nature in their metallic state.

Environmental variables that affect the corrosion resistance of metals and alloys pH (acidity) Oxidizing agents (such as oxygen) Temperature Concentration of solution constituents (such as chlorides) Biological activity

Some metals produce a tight protective oxide layer on the surface, which hinders further corrosion. If the surface layer is broken it is self-healing. These metals are passivated. Under atmospheric conditions the corrosion products of zinc and aluminium form a fairly tight layer and further corrosion is prevented. Likewise, on the surface of stainless steel a tight layer of iron and chromium oxide is formed and on the surface of titanium a layer of titanium oxide is formed. The protective layer of these metals explains their good corrosion resistance. Rust, on the other hand, is a non-protective corrosion product on steel. Rust is porous, not firmly adherent and does not prevent continued corrosion, see figure 1.6.2.

Operating conditions (such as velocity, cleaning procedures and shutdowns) Fig. 1.6.1: Environmental variables that affect the corrosion resistance of metals and alloys

Rust on steel

Non-protective corrosion product Oxide layer on stainless steel

Protective corrosion product Fig. 1.6.2: Examples of corrosion products

60

1.6.2 Types of corrosion Generally, metallic corrosion involves the loss of metal at a spot on an exposed surface. Corrosion occurs in various forms ranging from uniform attacks over the entire surface to severe local attacks. The environment’s chemical and physical conditions determine both the type and the rate of corrosion attacks. The conditions also determine the type of corrosion products that are formed and the control measures that need to be taken. In many cases, it is impossible or rather expensive to completely stop the corrosion process; however, it is usually possible to control the process to acceptable levels. On the following pages we will go through the different forms of corrosion in order to give you an idea of their characteristics.

Uniform corrosion Uniform or general corrosion is characterised by corrosive attacks proceeding evenly over the entire surface, or on a large part of the total area. General thinning continues until the metal is broken down. Uniform corrosion is the type of corrosion where the largest amount of metal is wasted. Examples of metals, which are subject to uniform corrosion: • Steel in aerated water • Stainless steel in reducing acids (such as EN 1.4301 (AISI 304) in sulfuric acid)

Fig. 1.6.3: Uniform corrosion

Pitting corrosion Pitting corrosion is a localised form of corrosive attacks. Pitting corrosion forms holes or pits on the metal surface. It perforates the metal while the total corrosion, measured by weight loss, might be rather minimal. The rate of penetration may be 10 to 100 times that of general corrosion depending on the aggressiveness of the liquid. Pitting occurs more easily in a stagnant environment.

Fig. 1.6.4: Pitting corrosion

Example of metal that is subject to pitting corrosion: • Stainless steel in seawater

61

1. Design Section 1.6

of pumps and motors

Materials 1.1 Pump construction, (10)

Crevice corrosion Crevice corrosion - like pitting corrosion - is a localised form of corrosion attack. However, crevice corrosion starts more easily than pitting. Crevice corrosion occurs at narrow openings or spaces between two metal surfaces or between metals and non-metal surfaces and is usually associated with a stagnate condition in the crevice. Crevices, such as those found at flange joints or at threaded connections, are thus often the most critical spots for corrosion. Example of metal that is subject to crevice corrosion: • Stainless steel in seawater

Fig. 1.6.5: Crevice corrosion

Intergranular corrosion As the name implies, intergranular corrosion occurs at grain boundaries. Intergranular corrosion is also called intercrystalline corrosion. Typically, this type of corrosion occurs when chromium carbide precipitates at the grain boundaries during the welding process or in connection with insufficient heat treatment. A narrow region around the grain boundary may therefore deplete in chromium and become less corrosion resistant than the rest of the material. This is unfortunate because chromium plays an important role in corrosion resistance. Examples of metals that are subject to intergranular corrosion: • Stainless steel - which is insufficiently welded or heat-treated • Stainless steel EN 1.4401 (AISI 316) in concentrated nitric acid

Fig. 1.6.6: Intergranular corrosion

Selective corrosion Selective corrosion is a type of corrosion which attacks one single element of an alloy and dissolves the element in the alloy structure. Consequently, the alloy’s structure is weakened. Examples of selective corrosion: • The dezincification of unstabilised brass, whereby a weakened, porous copper structure is produced • Graphitisation of gray cast iron, whereby a brittle graphite skeleton is left because of the dissolution of iron

62

Brass Zinc corrosion products Copper

Fig. 1.6.7: Selective corrosion

Erosion corrosion Erosion corrosion is a process that involves corrosion and erosion. The rate of corrosion attack is accelerated by the relative motion of a corrosive liquid and a metal surface. The attack is localised in areas with high velocity or turbulent flow. Erosion corrosion attacks are characterised by grooves with directional pattern. Examples of metals which are subject to erosion corrosion: • Bronze in seawater • Copper in water

Flow

Fig. 1.6.8: Erosion corrosion

Cavitation corrosion A pumped liquid with high velocity reduces the pressure. When the pressure drops below the liquid vapour pressure, vapour bubbles form (the liquid boils). In the areas where the vapour bubbles form, the liquid is boiling. When the pressure raises again, the vapour bubbles collapse and produce intensive shockwaves. Consequently, the collapse of the vapour bubbles remove metal or oxide from the surface. Examples of metals that are subject to cavitation: • Cast iron in water at high temperature • Bronze in seawater

Fig. 1.6.9: Cavitation corrosion

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) refers to the combined influence of tensile stress (applied or internal) and corrosive environment. The material can crack without any significant deformation or obvious deterioration of the material. Often, pitting corrosion is associated with the stress corrosion cracking phenomena. Examples of metals that are subject to stress corrosion cracking: • Stainless steel EN 1.4401 (AISI 316) in chlorides • Brass in ammonia

Fig. 1.6.10: Stress corrosion cracking

63

1. Design Section 1.6 of pumps and motors

<

Materials 1.1 Pump construction, (10)

Corrosion fatigue Pure mechanical fatigue is when a material subjected to a cyclic load far below the ultimate tensile strength can fail. If the metal is simultaneously exposed to a corrosive environment, the failure can take place at an even lower stress and after a shorter time. Contrary to a pure mechanical fatigue, there is no fatigue limit in corrosion-assisted fatigue.

Fig. 1.6.11: Corrosion fatigue

Example of metals that are subject to corrosion fatigue: • Aluminium structures in corrosive atmosphere

Galvanic corrosion When a corrosive electrolyte and two metallic materials are in contact (galvanic cell), corrosion increases on the least noble material (the anode) and decreases on the noblest (the cathode). The increase in corrosion is called galvanic corrosion. The tendency of a metal or an alloy to corrode in a galvanic cell is determined by its position in the galvanic series. The galvanic series indicates the relative nobility of different metals and alloys in a given environment (e.g. seawater, see figure 1.6.12). The farther apart the metals are in the galvanic series, the greater the galvanic corrosion effect will be. Metals or alloys at the upper end are noble, while those at the lower end are least noble.

Aluminium - less noble

Copper - most noble

Fig. 1.6.12: Galvanic corrosion

Examples of metal that are subject to galvanic corrosion: • Steel in contact with 1.4401 • Aluminium in contact with copper The principles of galvanic corrosion are used in cathodic protection. Cathodic protection is a means of reducing or preventing the corrosion of a metal surface by the use of sacrificial anodes (zinc or aluminum) or impressed currents.

Fig. 1.6.13: Galvanic series for metals and alloys in seawater

64

1.6.3 Metal and metal alloys On the following pages, you can read about the features of different metals and metal alloys, used for construction of pumps.

Cavitation corrosion of bronze impeller

Ferrous alloys Ferrous alloys are alloys where iron is the prime constituent. Ferrous alloys are the most common of all materials because of their availability, low cost, and versatility.

Steel

Erosion corrosion of cast iron impeller

Steel is a widely used material primarily composed of iron alloyed with carbon. The amount of carbon in steel varies in the range from 0.003% to 1.5% by weight. The content of carbon has an important impact on the material’s strength, weldability, machinability, ductility, and hardness. As a rule-of-thumb, an increase in carbon content will lead to an increase in strength and hardness but to a decrease in ductility and weldability. The most common type of steel is carbon steel. Carbon steel is grouped into four categories, see figure 1.6.14.

Pitting corrosion of EN 1.4401 (AISI 316)

1 mm

Type of steel

Content of carbon

Low carbon or mild steel

0.003% to 0.30% of carbon

Medium carbon steel

0.30% to 0.45% of carbon

High carbon steel

0.45% to 0.75% of carbon

Very high carbon steel

0.75% to 1.50% of carbon

Fig 1.6.14: Four types of carbon steel

Intergranular corrosion of stainless steel

Crevice corrosion of EN 1.4462 (SAF 2205)

Steel is available in wrought as well as in cast condition. The general characteristics of steel castings are closely comparable to those of wrought steels. The most obvious advantage of steel is that it is relatively inexpensive to make, form and process. On the other hand, the disadvantage of steel is that its corrosion resistance is low compared to alternative materials, such as stainless steel.

65

1. Design Section 1.6 of pumps and motors Materials 1.1 Pump construction, (10)

Cast iron Cast iron can be considered an alloy of iron, silicon and carbon. Typically, the concentration of carbon is between 3-4% by weight, most of which is present in insoluble form (e.g. graphite flakes or nodules). The two main types are grey cast iron and nodular (ductile) cast iron. The corrosion resistance of cast iron is comparable to the one for steel; and sometimes even better. Cast iron can be alloyed with 13-16% by weight silicon or 15-35% by weight nickel (Ni-resist) respectively in order to improve corrosion resistance. Various types of cast irons are widely used in industry, especially for valves, pumps, pipes and automotive parts. Cast iron has good corrosion resistance to neutral and alkaline liquids (high pH) . But its resistance to acids (low pH) is poor.

Grey iron

Fig 1.6.15: Comparison and designations of grey iron

In grey iron, the graphite is dispersed throughout a ferrite or pearlite matrix in the form of flakes. Fracture surfaces take on a grey appearance (hence the name!). The graphite flakes act as stress concentrators under tensile loads, making it weak and brittle in tension, but strong and ductile in compression. Grey iron is used for the construction of motor blocks because of its high vibration damping ability. Grey iron is an inexpensive material and is relatively easy to cast with a minimal risk of shrinkage. That is why grey iron is often used for pump parts with moderate strength requirements.

66

Nodular (ductile) iron

Fig 1.6.16: Comparison and designations of nodular iron

Nodular iron contains around 0.03-0.05% by weight of magnesium. Magnesium causes the flakes to become globular so the graphite is dispersed throughout a ferrite or pearlite matrix in the form of spheres or nodules. The graphite nodules have no sharp features. The round shape of nodular graphite reduces the stress concentration and consequently, the material is much more ductile than grey iron. Figure 1.6.16 clearly shows that the tensile strength is higher for nodular iron than is the case for grey iron. Nodular iron is normally used for pump parts with high strength requirements (high pressure or high temperature applications).

Stainless steel Stainless steel is chromium containing steel alloys. The minimum chromium content in standardised stainless steel is 10.5%. Chromium improves the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. The higher corrosion resistance is due to a chromium oxide film that is formed on the metal surface. This extremely thin layer is self-repairing under the right conditions. Molybdenum, nickel and nitrogen are other examples of typical alloying elements. Alloying with these elements brings out different crystal structures, which enable different properties in connection with machining, forming, welding, corrosion resistance, etc. In general, stainless steel has a higher resistance to chemicals (i.e. acids) than steel and cast iron have.

In environments containing chlorides, stainless steel can be attacked by localised corrosion, e.g. pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. The resistance of stainless steel to these types of corrosion is highly dependent on its chemical composition. It has become rather common to use the so-called PRE (Pitting Resistance Equivalent) values as a measure of pitting resistance for stainless steel. PRE values are calculated by formulas in which the relative influence of a few alloying elements (chromium,

molybdenum and nitrogen) on the pitting resistance is taken into consideration. The higher the PRE, the higher the resistance to localised corrosion. Be aware that the PRE value is a very rough estimate of the pitting resistance of a stainless steel and should only be used for comparison/ classification of different types of stainless steel. In the following, we will present the four major types of stainless steel: ferritic, martensitic, austenitic and duplex.

Fig 1.6.17: Chemical composition of stainless steel

Chemical composition of stainless steel [w%] Microstructure

1) 5)

Designation EN/AISI/UNS

% Carbon max.

% Chromium

% Nickel

% Molybdenum

% Other

PRE 5)

Ferritic

1.4016/430/ S43000

0.08

16-18

Martensitic

1.4057/431/ S43100

0.12-0.22

15-17

1.5-2.5

Austenitic

1.4305/303/ S30300

0.1

17-19

8-10

Austenitic

1.4301/304/ S30400

0.07

17-19.5

8-10.5

18

Austenitic

1.4306/304L/ S30403

0.03

18-20

10-12

18

Austenitic

1.4401/316/ S31600

0.07

16.5-18.5

10-13

2-2.5

24

Austenitic

1.4404/316L/ S31603

0.03

16.5-18.5

10-13

2-2.5

24

Austenitic

1.4571/316Ti/ S31635

0.08

16.5-18.5

10.5-13.5

2-2.5

Ti > 5 x carbon Ti < 0.70

24

Austenitic

1.4539/904L/ N08904

0.02

19-21

24-26

4-5

Cu 1.2-2

34

Austenitic

1.4547/none / S 31254 3)

0.02

20

18

6.1

N 0.18-0.22 Cu 0.5-1

43

Ferritic/ austenitic

1.4462/ none/ S32205 2)

0.03

21-23

4.5-6.5

2.5-3.5

N 0.10-0.22

34

Ferritic/ austenitic

1.4410/none/ S 32750 4)

0.03

25

7

4

N 0.24-0.32

43

Microstructure

Designation EN/ASTM/UNS

% Carbon max.

% Chromium

% Nickel

% Molybdenum

% Other

PRE

Austenitic 1)

1.4308/CF8/ J92600

0.07

18-20

8-11

Austenitic 1)

1.4408/CF8M/ J92900

0.07

18-20

9-12

2-2.5

Austenitic 1)

1.4409/CF3M/ J92800

0.03

18-20

9-12

2-2.5

N max. 0.2

26 35

17 16 S 0.15-0.35

18

19 26

Austenitic

1.4584/none/ none

0.025

19-21

24-26

4-5

N max. 0.2 Cu 1-3

Ferritic/ Austenitic

1.4470/CD3MN/ J92205

0.03

21-23

4.5-6.5

2.5-3.5

N 0.12-0.2

35

Ferritic/ Austenitic

1.4517/CD4MCuN/ J93372

0.03

24.5-26.5

2.5-3.5

2.5-3.5

N 0.12-0.22 Cu 2.75-3.5

38

Contains some ferrite 2) Also known as SAF 2205, 3) Also known as 254 SMO, Pitting Resistance Equivalent (PRE): Cr% + 3.3xMo% + 16xN%.

4)

Also known as SAF 2507

67

1. Design Section 1.6 of pumps and motors Materials 1.1 Pump construction, (10)

Ferritic (magnetic) Ferritic stainless steel is characterised by quite good corrosion properties, very good resistance to stress corrosion cracking and moderate toughness. Low alloyed ferritic stainless steel is used in mild environments (teaspoons, kitchen sinks, washing machine drums, etc.) where it is a requirement that the component is maintenance-free and non-rusting.

Martensitic (magnetic) Martensitic stainless steel is characterised by high strength and limited corrosion resistance. Martensitic steels are used for springs, shafts, surgical instruments and for sharp-edged tools, such as knives and scissors.

Austenitic (non-magnetic) Austenitic stainless steel is the most common type of stainless steel and is characterised by a high corrosion resistance, very good formability, toughness and weldability. Austenitic stainless steel, especially the EN 1.4301 and EN 1.4401 are used for almost any type of pump components in the industry. This kind of stainless steel can be either wrought or cast. EN 1.4305 is one of the most popular stainless steel types of all the free machining stainless steel types. Due to its high sulphur content (0.15-0.35 w%), the machinability has improved considerably but unfortunately at the expense of its corrosion resistance and its weldability. However, over the years free machining grades with a low sulphur content and thus a higher corrosion resistance have been developed. If stainless steel is heated up to 500°C - 800°C for a longer period of time during welding, the chromium might form chromium carbides with the carbon present in the steel. This reduces chromium’s capability to maintain the passive film and might lead to intergranular corrosion also referred to as sensitisation (see section 1.6.2). If low carbon grades of stainless steel are used the risk of sensitisation is reduced. Stainless steel with a low content

68

of carbon is referred to as EN 1.4306 (AISI 304L) or EN 1.4404 (AISI 316L). Both grades contain 0.03% of carbon compared to 0.07% in the regular type of stainless steel EN 1.4301 (AISI 304) and EN 1.4401 (AISI 316), see illustration 1.6.17. The stabilised grades EN 1.4571 (AISI 316Ti) contain a small amount of titanium. Because titanium has a higher affinity for carbon than chromium, the formation of chromium carbides is minimised. The content of carbon is generally low in modern stainless steel, and with the easy availability of ‘L’ grades the use of stabilised grades has declined markedly.

Ferritic-austenitic or duplex (magnetic) Ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steel is characterised by high strength, good toughness, high corrosion resistance and excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue in particular. Ferritic-austenitic stainless steel is typically used in applications that require high strength, high corrosion resistance and low susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking or a combination of these properties. Stainless steel EN 1.4462 is widely used for making pump shafts and pump housings.

Nickel alloys

Copper alloys

Nickel base alloys are defined as alloys in which nickel is present in greater proportion than any other alloying element. The most important alloying constituents are iron, chromium, copper, and molybdenum. The alloying constituents make it possible to form a wide range of alloy classes. Nickel and nickel alloys have the ability to withstand a wide variety of severe operating conditions, for instance corrosive environments, high temperatures, high stresses or a combination of these factors.

Pure copper has excellent thermal and electrical properties, but is a very soft and ductile material. Alloying additions result in different cast and wrought materials, which are suitable for use in the production of pumps, pipelines, fittings, pressure vessels and for many marine, electrical and general engineering applications.

HastelloysTM alloys are a line of commercial alloys containing Ni, Mo, Cr, and Fe. Nickel base alloys, such as InconelTM Alloy 625, HastelloysTM C-276 and C-22 are highly corrosion resistant and not subject to pitting or crevice corrosion in low velocity seawater, and do not suffer from erosion at high velocity. The price of nickel base alloy limits its use in certain applications. Nickel alloys are available in both wrought and cast grades. However, nickel alloys are more difficult to cast than the common carbon steels and stainless steel alloys. Nickel alloys are especially used for pump parts in the chemical process industry.

1) Lead can be added as an alloying element to improve the machinability. 2) Bronze can be alloyed with aluminium to increase strength. Fig 1.6.18: Common types of copper alloys

Brasses are the most widely used of the copper alloys because of their low cost, their easy or inexpensive fabrication and machining. However, they are inferior in strength to bronzes and must not be used in environments that cause dezincification (see selective corrosion). Red brass, bronze and copper nickels in particular have, compared to cast iron a high resistance to chlorides in aggressive liquids, such as seawater. In such environments, brass is unsuitable because of its tendency to dezincificate. All copper alloys have poor resistance to alkaline liquids (high pH), ammonia and sulfides and are sensitive to erosion. Brass, red brass and bronze are widely used for making bearings, impellers and pump housings.

69

1. Design Section 1.6 of pumps and motors Materials 1.1 Pump construction, (10)

Aluminium Designation

Major alloying element

1000-series

Unalloyed (pure) >99% Al

2000-series

Copper is the principal alloying element, though other elements (magnesium) may be specified

3000-series

Manganese is the principal alloying element

4000-series

Silicon is the principal alloying element

5000-series

Magnesium is the principal alloying element

6000-series

Magnesium and silicon are principal alloying elements

7000-series

Zinc is the principal alloying element, but other elements, such as copper, magnesium, chromium, and zirconium may be specified

8000-series

Other elements (including tin and some lithium compositions)

Titanium

CP: commercial pure (titanium content above 99.5%)

Fig 1.6.20: Titanium grades and alloy characteristics

Fig 1.6.19: Major alloying elements of aluminium

Pure aluminium is a light and soft metal with a density of about a third of that of steel. Pure aluminium has a high electrical and thermal conductivity. The most common alloying elements are silicon (silumin), magnesium, iron and copper. Silicon increases the material’s castability, copper increases its machinability and magnesium increases its corrosion resistance and strength. The obvious advantages of aluminium are that the material naturally generates a protective oxide film and is highly corrosion resistant if it is exposed to the atmosphere. Treatment, such as anodising, can further improve this property. Aluminium alloys are widely used in structures where a high strength to weight ratio is important, such as in the transportation industry. For example, the use of aluminium in vehicles and aircrafts reduces weight and energy consumption. On the other hand, the disadvantage of aluminium is that it is not stable at low or high pH and in chloride-containing environments. This property makes aluminium unsuitable for exposure to aqueous solutions especially under conditions with high flow. This is further emphasised by the fact that aluminium is a reactive metal, i.e. has a low position in the galvanic series (see galvanic corrosion) and may easily suffer from galvanic corrosion if coupled to nobler metals and alloys.

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Pure titanium has a low density, is quite ductile and has a relatively low strength. However, when a limited amount of oxygen is added it will strengthen titanium and produce the so-called commercial-pure grades. Additions of various alloying elements, such as aluminium and vanadium increase its strength significantly, at the expense of ductility. The aluminium and vanadium alloyed titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) is the “workhorse” alloy of the titanium industry. It is used in many aerospace engine and airframe components. Because titanium is a high-price material, it is not yet a material which is often used for making pump components. Titanium is a very reactive material. As it is the case for stainless steel, titanium’s corrosion resistance depends on the formation of an oxide film. However, the oxide film is more protective than that on stainless steel. Therefore, titanium performs much better than stainless steel in aggressive liquids, such as seawater, wet chlorine or organic chlorides, that cause pitting and crevice corrosion.

1.6.4 Ceramics

Thermoplastics

Ceramic materials are defined as inorganic, non-metallic materials, which are typically crystalline in nature. They are composed of metallic and non-metallic elements. Common technical ceramics are aluminium oxide (alumina - Al2O3), silicon carbide (SiC), tungsten carbide (WC), and silicon nitride (Si3N4).

Thermoplastic polymers consist of long polymer molecules that are not linked to each other, i.e. have no cross-links. They are often supplied as granules and heated to permit fabrication by methods, such as moulding or extrusion. A wide range is available, from low-cost commodity plastics (e.g. PE, PP, PVC) to high cost engineering thermoplastics (e.g. PEEK) and chemical resistant fluoropolymers (e.g. PTFE, PVDF). PTFE is one of the few thermoplastics, which is not melt-processable. Thermoplastics are widely used for making pump housings or for lining of pipes and pump housings.

Ceramics are suitable for applications which require high thermal stability, high strength, high wear resistance, and high corrosion resistance. The disadvantage of ceramics is the low ductility and high tendency for brittle fractures. Ceramics are mainly used for making bearings and seal faces for shaft seals.

1.6.5 Plastics Abbreviation

Polymer name

PP PE PVC PEEK PVDF PTFE*

Polypropylene Polyethylene Polyvinylchloride Polyetheretherketone Polyvinylidene fluoride Polytetrafluoroethylene

*Trade name: Teflon®

Thermosets Thermosets harden permanently when heated, as crosslinking hinders bending and rotations. Cross-linking is achieved during fabrication using chemicals, heat, or radiation; this process is called curing or vulcanization. Thermosets are harder, more dimensionally stable, and more brittle than thermoplastics and cannot be remelted. Important thermosets include epoxies, polyesters, and polyurethanes. Thermosets are among other things used for surface coatings.

Fig 1.6.21: Overview of polymer names

Some plastics are derived from natural substances, such as plants, but most types are man-made. These are known as synthetic plastics. Most synthetic plastics come from crude oil, but coal and natural gas are also used. There are two main types of plastics: Thermoplastics and thermosets (thermosetting plastics). The thermoplastics are the most common kind of plastic used worldwide. Plastics often contain additives, which transfer certain additional properties to the material. Furthermore, plastics can be reinforced with fiberglass or other fibres. These plastics together with additives and fibres are also referred to as composites. Examples of additives found in plastics • Inorganic fillers for mechanical reinforcement • Chemical stabilisers, e.g. antioxidants • Plasticisers • Flame retardants

Linear polymer chains

Thermoplastics

Branched polymer chains

Elastomers Weakly cross-linked polymer chains

Thermosets Strongly cross-linked polymer chains

Fig 1.6.22: Different types of polymers

71

1. Design Section 1.6

of pumps and motors

Materials 1.1 Pump construction, (10)

1.6.6 Rubber of Abbreviation Common types Common ofname copper alloys Examples trade name NBR

Nitrile rubber

Buna-NR

EPDM, EPM

Ethylene propylene rubber

NordelR

FKM

Fluoroelastomers

VitonR

MQ, VMQ, PMQ, FMQ

Silicone rubber

SilopreneR

FFKM

Perfluoroelastomers

ChemrazR KalrezR

Fig 1.6.23: Rubber types

The term rubber includes both natural rubber and synthetic rubber. Rubbers (or elastomers) are flexible longchain polymers that can be stretched easily to several times their unstretched length and which rapidly return to their original dimensions when the applied stress is released. Rubbers are cross-linked (vulcanized), but have a low crosslink density, see figure 1.6.22. The cross-link is the key to the elastic, or rubbery, properties of these materials. The elasticity provides resiliency in sealing applications. Different components in a pump are made of rubber, e.g. gaskets and O-rings (see section 1.3 on shaft seals). In this section we will present the different kinds of rubber qualities and their main properties as regards temperature and resistance to different kinds of liquid groups.

At temperatures up to about 100°C nitrile rubber is an inexpensive material that has a high resistance to oil and fuel. Different grades exist - the higher the acrylonitrile (ACN) content, the higher the oil resistance, but the poorer is the low temperature flexibility. Nitrile rubbers have high resilience and high wear resistance but only moderate strength. Further, the rubber has limited weathering resistance and poor solvent resistance. It can generally be used down to about -30°C, but certain grades can operate at lower temperatures.

72

Ethylene propylene has excellent water resistance which is maintained to high temperatures approximately 120140°C. The rubber type has good resistance to acids, strong alkalis and highly polar fluids, such as methanol and acetone. However, it has very poor resistance to mineral oil and fuel.

Fluoroelastomers (FKM) Fluoroelastomers cover a whole family of rubbers designed to withstand oil, fuel and a wide range of chemicals including non-polar solvents. offers excellent resistance to high temperature operation (up to 200°C depending on the grade) in air and different types of oil. rubbers have limited resistance to steam, hot water, methanol, and other highly polar fluids. Further, this type of rubber has poor resistance to amines, strong alkalis and many freons. There are standard and special grades - the latter have special properties, such as improved lowtemperature or chemical resistance.

Silicone rubbers have outstanding properties, such as low compression set in a wide range of temperatures (from -60°C to 200°C in air), excellent electrical insulation and are non-toxic. Silicone rubbers are resistant to water, some acids and oxidizing chemicals. Concentrated acids, alkalines, and solvents should not be used with silicone rubbers. In general, these types of rubber have poor resistance to oil and fuel. However, the resistance of FMQ silicone rubber to oil and fuel is better than that of the silicone rubber types MQ, VMQ, and PMQ.

Perfluoroelastomers have very high chemical resistance, almost comparable to that of PTFE (polytetrafluorethylene, e.g. TeflonR). They can be used up to high temperatures, but their disadvantages are difficult processing, very high cost and limited use at low temperatures.

1.6.7 Coatings Protective coating – metallic, non-metallic (inorganic) or organic – is a common method of corrosion control. The main function of coatings is (aside from galvanic coatings, such as zinc) to provide an effective barrier between the metal (substrate) and its environment. They allow the use of normal steel or aluminium instead of more expensive materials. In the following section we will examine the possibilities of preventing corrosion by means of different coatings: Metallic and non-metallic (inorganic) coatings and organic coatings.

To protect the base steel, zinc coating sacrifices itself slowly by galvanic action.

Steel coated with a more noble metal, such as nickel, corrodes more rapidly if the coating is damaged.

Fig 1.6.24: Galvanic vs. barrier corrosion protection

Metallic coatings Metallic coatings less noble than the substrate Zinc coatings are commonly used for the protection of steel structures against atmospheric corrosion. Zinc has two functions: it acts as a barrier coating and it provides galvanic protection. Should an exposed area of steel occur, the zinc surface preferentially corrodes at a slow rate and protects the steel. The preferential protection is referred to as cathodic protection. When damage is small, the protective corrosion products of zinc will fill the exposed area and stop the attack.

Metallic coatings nobler than the substrate Electroplating of nickel and chromium coatings on steel are examples of metallic coatings that are nobler than the substrate. Unlike galvanic coatings where the coating corrodes near areas where the base metal is exposed, any void or damage in a barrier coating can lead to an immediate base metal attack.

73

1. Design Section 1.6 of pumps and motors

<

Materials 1.1 Pump construction, (10)

Non-metallic coatings (inorganic coatings) Conversion coatings are an important category of nonmetallic coatings (inorganic).

Conversion coatings Conversion coatings are formed by a controlled corrosion reaction of the substrate in an oxidised solution. Well-known examples of conversion coatings are anodising or chromating of aluminium, and phosphate treatment of steel. Anodising is mainly used for surface protection of aluminium, while chromating and phosphating are usually used for pre-treatment in connection with painting. Besides improving paint adhesion, it helps to prevent the spreading of rust under layers of paint.

Paints As mentioned above, paints are an important class of organic coating. Figure 1.6.25 shows several types of organic coatings. A typical paint formulation contains polymeric binders, solvents, pigments and additives. For environmental reasons, organic solvents are increasingly being replaced by water or simply eliminated, e.g powder coating. Painted metal structures usually involve two or more layers of coating applied on a primary coating, which is in direct contact with the metal.

Organic coatings Organic coatings contain organic compounds and are available in a wide range of different types. Organic coatings are applied to the metal by methods of spraying, dipping, brushing, lining or electro-coating (paint applied by means of electric current) and they may or may not require heat-curing. Both thermoplastic coatings, such as polyamide, polypropylene, polyethylene, PVDF and PTFE and elastomer coatings are applied to metal substrates to combine the mechanical properties of metal with the chemical resistance of plastics but paints are by far the most widely used organic coating.

74

Physical states of common organic coatings Resin type Acrylic Alkyd Epoxy Polyester Polyurethane Vinyl

Solvent- Water- Powder based based coating X X X X X X

X X X X X

Two comp. liquid

X X X X X

Fig 1.6.25: Physical states of common organic coatings

X X X

Chapter 2. Installation and performance reading

Section 2.1: Pump installation 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5

New installation Existing installation Pipe flow for single-pump installation Limitation of noise and vibrations Sound level (L)

Section 2.2: Pump performance 2.2.1 Hydraulic terms 2.2.2 Electrical terms 2.2.3 Liquid properties

Section 2.1 Pump installation

Correct advice and selection of pump type for an installation has larger implication than what meets the eye. The larger the pumps, the greater the costs with respect to investment, installation, commissioning, running and maintenance – basically the life cycle cost (LCC). An extensive product portfolio combined with competent advice and after-sales service is the foundation of a correct selection. The following analysis, recommendations and hints are general for any installation, but to a greater extent relevant for medium-sized and large installations. We will present our recommendations for two types of installation: New and existing installations.

2.1.2 Existing installation – replacement The following five steps will help you make an optimum pump selection for an existing installation:

Pre-investigation of the installation should include the following considerations: • Basic pipe flow – pipes in and out of the building, e.g. from ground, along floor or from ceiling

• Specific pipework at the point of installation, e.g. in-line or end-suction, dimensions, manifolds

• Space available – width, depth and height • Accessibility in connection with installation and •

2.1.1 New installation • If the pipework has not been planned yet, you can base the selection of pump type on other primary selection criteria, e.g. efficiency, investment costs or life cycle costs (LCC). This will not be covered in this section. However, the general guidelines, which are presented, also apply for pipework that has not yet been planned.

• If the pipework has already been planned, the selection of pump is equivalent to replacing a pump in an existing installation.

• • •

maintenance, for instance doorways Availability of lifting equipment or alternatively accessibility of such equipment Floor type, e.g. solid or suspended floor with basement Existing foundation Existing electric installation

Previous pump installation • Pump make, type, specifications including old duty point, shaft seal, materials, gaskets, controlling • History, e.g. lifetime, maintenance

Future requirements • Desired improvements and benefits • New selection criteria including duty points and operating times, temperature, pressure, liquid specifications • Supplier criteria, e.g. availability of spare parts

Advisory • Major changes might be beneficial in a long or short term or both and must be documented, e.g. installation savings, life cycle costs (LCC), reduction on environmental impact like noise and vibrations and accessibility in connection with maintenance

Selection • Must be based on a customer-agreed list of priorities For the selection of the correct pump type and advice on installation, two main areas are important: Pipe flow and limitation of noise and vibrations. These two areas will be dealt with on the following pages.

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2.1.3 Pipe flow for single-pump installation Figure 2.1.1 is based on single-pump installation. In parallel installations accessibility plays a major role for how good a pump choice is. The evaluation criterion is as simple pipework as possible, hence as few bends as possible.

Scores: Best choice Good choice Least good choice Not applicable

Pump type

Pipework To the pump:

Along floor

From ground

From ceiling

Wallmounted

A. In-line close-coupled (horizontal or vertical mounting)

B. End-suction close- coupled (horizontal or vertical mounting)

C. End-suction long-coupled (only horizontal mounting)

From the pump: Along floor

Best choice

Good choice

Good choice

To ground

Best choice

Good choice

Good choice

To ceiling

Good choice

Best choice

Best choice

Along floor

Good choice

Best choice

Least good choice

To ground

Good choice

Best choice

Least good choice

To ceiling

Good choice

Best choice

Best choice

Along floor

Best choice

Least good choice

Least good choice

To ground

Best choice

Good choice

Good choice

To ceiling

Good choice

Best choice

Best choice

Wallmounted

Best choice

Good choice

Not applicable

Fig. 2.1.1 Pipework and pump type

77

Section 2.1 Pump installation

Accessibility plays a major role in how well a specific pump choice is in connection with installation of several pumps in parallel. The accessibility is not always easy for in-line pumps installed in parallel because of the pipework, see figure 2.1.2. As it appears from figure 2.1.3, end-suction pumps installed in parallel provide easier accessibility.

2.1.4 Limitation of noise and vibrations

Fig. 2.1.2: 3 in-line pumps in parallel; limited maintenance access because of pipework

To achieve optimum operation and minimise noise and vibration, it may be necessary to consider vibration dampening of the pump in certain cases. Generally, this should always be considered in the case of pumps with motors above 7.5 kW. Smaller motor sizes, however, may also cause undesirable noise and vibration. Noise and vibration are generated by the rotation in motor and pump and by the flow in pipes and fittings. The effect on the environment depends on correct installation and the state of the entire system. Below we will present 3 different ways of limiting noise and vibration in a pump installation: Foundation, dampeners and expansion joint.

Fig. 2.1.3: 3 end-suction pumps in parallel; easier maintenace access because of pipework

Floor Solid ground

Foundation Floor constructions can be divided into two types: Solid floor and suspended floor.

Fig. 2.1.4: Solid floor construction

Solid – minimum risk of noise due to bad transmission of vibrations, see figure 2.1.4. Suspended – risk of floor amplifying the noise. Basement can act as a resonance box, see figure 2.1.5.

Ground floor

Wall

The pump should be installed on a plane and rigid surface. Four basic ways of installation exist for the two types of floor construction: Floor, plinth, floating plinth and foundation suspended on vibration dampeners.

Basement

Floor Solid ground

Fig. 2.1.5: Suspended floor construction

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Floor

Fig. 2.1.6: Floor

Floor Direct mounting on floor, hence direct vibration transmission, see figure 2.1.6. Floor

Plinth Poured directly on concrete floor, hence as floor, see figure 2.1.7.

Fig. 2.1.7: Plinth

Floor

Floating plinth Resting on a dead material, e.g. sand, hence reduced risk of vibration transmission, see figure 2.1.8.

Base plate Pump unit

Plinth Base plate Pump unit

Fig. 2.1.8: Floating plinth

Floor Sand Plinth Base plate Pump unit

Foundation suspended on vibration dampeners Optimum solution with controlled vibration transmission, see figure 2.1.9.

Fig. 2.1.9: Foundation suspended on vibration dampeners

As a rule of thumb, the weight of a concrete foundation should be 1.5 x the pump weight. This weight is needed to get the dampeners to work efficiently at low pump speed. Floor Vibration dampeners Foundation Base plate Pump unit

Pump unit Fig. 2.1.10: The same foundation rules go for vertical in-line pumps Foundation Vibration dampeners Floor

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Section 2.1 Pump installation

Dampeners The selection of the right vibration dampener requires the following data:

• Forces acting on the dampener • Motor speed considering speed control, if any • Required dampening in % (suggested value is 70%) The determination of the right dampener varies from installation to installation but a wrong selection of dampener may increase the vibration level in certain cases. The supplier should therefore size vibration dampeners. Pumps installed with vibration dampeners must always have expansion joints fitted at both the suction and the discharge side. This is important in order to avoid that the pump hangs in the flanges.

Expansion joint

Foundation Pump unit

Base plate Vibration dampeners Floor

Fig. 2.1.11: Installation with expansion joints, vibration dampeners and fixed pipework

Expansion joints Expansion joints are installed to:

• absorb expansions/contractions in the pipework caused by changing liquid temperature

• reduce mechanical strains in connection with pressure waves in the pipework

• isolate mechanical noise in the pipework (not for metal bellows expansion joints) Expansion joints must not be installed to compensate for inaccuracies in the pipework, such as centre displacement or misalignment of flanges. Expansion joints are fitted at a distance of minimum 1 to 1.5 . DN diameter from the pump on the suction side as well as on the discharge side. This prevents the development of turbulence in the expansion joints, resulting in better suction conditions and a minimum pressure loss on the pressure side. At high water velocities (>5 m/s) it is best to install larger expansion joints corresponding to the pipework.

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Figures 2.1.12-2.1.14 show examples of rubber bellows expansion joints with or without tie bars.

Fig. 2.1.12: Rubber bellows expansion joints with tie bars

Expansion joints with tie bars can be used to minimise the forces caused by the expansion joints. Expansion joints with tie bars are recommended for sizes larger than DN 100. An expansion joint without tie bars will exert force on the pump flanges. These forces affect the pump and the pipework.

Fig. 2.1.13: Rubber bellows expansion joints without tie bars

The pipes must be fixed so that they do not stress the expansion joints and the pump, see figure 2.1.11. The fix points should always be placed as close to the expansion joints as possible. Follow the expansion joint supplier’s instructions.

Fig. 2.1.14: Metal bellows expansion joints with tie bars

At temperatures above 100°C combined with a high pressure, metal bellows expansion joints are often preferred due to the risk of rupture.

2.1.5 Sound level (L) The sound level in a system is measured in decibel (dB). Noise is unwanted sound. The level of noise can be measured in the following three ways: 1. Pressure – Lp : The pressure of the air waves 2. Power – LW : The power of the sound 3. Intensity - LI: The power per m2 (will not be covered in this book) It is not possible to compare the three values directly, but it is possible to calculate between them based on standards. The rule of thumb is:

Lp (dB) 120 100

Pain threshold Threshold of hearing Music

80 60

Speech 40 20 0 20

50 100 200 500Hz 1

2

Fig. 2.1.15: Threshold of hearing vs. frequency

5

10 20kHz Frequency kHz

Smaller pumps, e.g. 1.5 kW: Lw = LP + 11 dB Larger pumps, e.g. 110 kW: Lw = LP + 16 dB

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Section 2.1 Pump installation

The EU Machine Directive prescribes that sound levels have to be indicated as pressure when they are below 85 dB(A) and as power when they exceed 85 dB(A). Noise is subjective and depends on a person´s ability to hear, e.g. young vs. old person. Therefore, the abovementioned measurements get weight according to the sensibility of a standard ear, see figure 2.1.15. The weighting is known as A-weighting (dB(A)), expressed as e.g: LpA, and the measurements are adjusted depending on frequency. In some cases it increases and in other cases it decreases, see figure 2.1.16. Other weightings are known as B and C but they are used for other purposes, which we do not cover in this book.

dB (A)

10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 100

10

10000 Hz

1000

Fig. 2.1.16 A-weighting curve

15

In case of two or more pumps in operation, the sound level can be calculated. If it is pumps with the same sound level the total sound level can be calculated adding the value from figure 2.1.17, e.g. 2 . pumps is Lp + 3 dB, 3 . pumps is Lp + 5 dB. If the pumps have different sound level, values from figure 2.1.18 can be added. Indications of sound level should normally be stated as free field conditions over reflecting surface, meaning the sound level on a hard floor with no walls. Guaranteeing values in a specific room in a specific pipe system is difficult because these values are beyond the reach of the manufacturer. Certain conditions could have a negative impact (increasing sound level) or a positive impact on the sound level. Recommendations to installation and foundation can be given to eliminate or reduce the negative impact.

10

5

4

8

12

16

20

24

Fig. 2.1.17 Increase of the total sound pressure level with equal sources

3 2.5 2

Experience values: Rise of + 3dB + 5dB +10dB

Perceived as: Just noticeable Clearly noticeable Twice as loud

1.5 1 0.5

2

4

6

8

10

Fig. 2.1.18 Increase of the total sound pressure level with different sources

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Chapter 3. System hydraulic

Section 3.1: System characteristics 3.1.1 Single resistances 3.1.2 Closed and open systems

Section 3.2: Pumps connected in series and parallel 3.2.1 Pumps in parallel 3.2.2 Pumps connected in series

Section 3.1 System characteristics

Previously, in section 1.1.2 we discussed the basic characteristics of pump performance curves. In this chapter we will examine the pump performance curve at different operating conditions as well as a typical system characteristic. Finally, we will focus on the interaction between a pump and a system. A system’s characteristic describes the relation between the flow Q and head H in the system. The system characteristic depends on the type of system in question. We distinguish between two types: Closed and open systems.

• Closed systems are circulating systems like heating or air-conditioning systems, where the pump has to overcome the friction losses in the pipes, fittings, valves, etc. in the system.

• Open systems are liquid transport systems like water supply systems. In such systems the pump has to deal with both the static head and overcome the friction losses in the pipes and components. When the system characteristic is drawn in the same system of co-ordinates as the pump curve, the duty point of the pump can be determined as the point of intersection of the two curves, see figure.3.1.1. Open and closed systems consist of resistances (valves, pipes, heat exchanger, etc.) connected in series or parallel, which altogether affect the system characteristic. Therefore, before we continue our discussion on open and closed systems, we will briefly describe how these resistances affect the system characteristic.

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Fig. 3.1.1: The point of intersection between the pump curve and the system characteristic is the duty point of the pump

3.1.1 Single resistances Every component in a system constitutes a resistance against the liquid flow which leads to a head loss across every single component in the system. The following formula is used to calculate the head loss ∆H:

∆H = k . Q2 k is a constant, which depends on the component in question and Q is the flow through the component. As it appears from the formula, the head loss is proportional to the flow in second power. So, if it is possible to lower the flow in a system, a substantial reduction in the pressure loss occurs.

Resistances connected in series The total head loss in a system consisting of several components connected in series is the sum of head losses that each component represents. Figure 3.1.2 shows a system consisting of a valve and a heat exchanger. If we do not consider the head loss in the piping between the two components, the total head loss ∆Htot is calculated by adding the two head losses:

∆Htot = ∆H1 + ∆H2 Furthermore, figure 3.1.2 shows how the resulting curve will look and what the duty point will be if the system is a closed system with only these two components. As it appears from the figure, the resulting characteristic is found by adding the individual head losses ∆H at a given flow Q. Likewise, the figure shows that the more resistance in the system, the steeper the resulting system curve will be.

Fig. 3.1.2: The head loss for two components connected in series is the sum of the two individual head losses

97

Section 3.1 System characteristics

Resistances connected in parallel Contrary to connecting components in series, connecting components in parallel result in a more flat system characteristic. The reason is that components installed in parallel reduce the total resistance in the system and thereby the head loss. The differential pressure across the components connected in parallel is always the same. The resulting system characteristic is defined by adding all the components’ individual flow rate for a specific ∆H. Figure 3.1.3 shows a system with a valve and a heat exchanger connected in parallel. The resulting flow can be calculated by the following formula for a head loss equivalent to ∆H

Q tot = Q 1 + Q2 Fig. 3.1.3: Components connected in parallel reduce the resistance in the system and result in a more flat system characteristic

3.1.2 Closed and open systems As mentioned previously, pump systems are split into two types of basic systems: Closed and open systems. In this section, we will examine the basic characteristics of these systems.

Closed systems Typically, closed systems are systems, which transport heat energy in heating systems, air-conditioning systems, process cooling systems, etc. A common feature of these types of closed systems is that the liquid is circulated and is the carrier of heat energy. Heat energy is in fact what the system has to transport. Closed systems are characterised as systems with pumps that only have to overcome the sum of friction losses, which are generated by all the components. Figure 3.1.4 shows a schematic drawing of a closed system where a pump has to circulate water from a heater through a control valve to a heat exchanger.

98

Fig. 3.1.4: Schematic drawing of a closed system

All these components together with the pipes and fittings result in a system characteristic as the one shown in figure 3.1.5. The required pressure in a closed system (which the system curve illustrates) is a parabola starting in the point (Q,H) = (0,0) and is calculated by the following formula:

H = k . Q2 As the formula and curve indicate, the pressure loss is approaching zero when the flow drops.

Open systems

Fig. 3.1.5: The system characteristic for a closed system is a parabola starting in point (0,0)

Open systems are systems, where the pump is used to transport liquid from one point to another, e.g. water supply systems, irrigation systems, industrial process systems. In such systems the pump has to deal with both the geodetic head of the liquid and to overcome the friction losses in the pipes and the system components. We distinguish between two types of open system: • Open systems where the total required geodetic lift is positive. • Open systems where the total required geodetic lift is negative. Fig. 3.1.6: Open system with positive geodetic lift

Open system with positive geodetic head Figure 3.1.6 shows a typical open system with positive geodetic lift. A pump has to transport water from a break tank at ground level up to a roof tank on the top of a building. First of all, the pump has to provide a head higher than the geodetic head of the water (h). Secondly, the pump has to provide the necessary head to overcome the total friction loss between the two tanks in piping, fittings, valves, etc. (Hf). The pressure loss depends on the amount of flow, see figure 3.1.7.

Q

Q1

Q1

Q

Fig. 3.1.7: System characteristic together with the pump performance curve for the open system in figure 3.1.6

99

Section 3.1 System characteristics

The figure shows that in an open system no water flows if the maximum head (Hmax) of the pump is lower than the geodetic head (h). Only when H > h, water will start to flow from the break tank to the roof tank. The system curve also shows that the lower the flow rate, the lower the friction loss (Hf) and consequently the lower the power consumption of the pump. So, the flow (Q1) and the pump size have to match the need for the specific system. This is in fact a rule-ofthumb for liquid transport systems: A larger flow leads to a higher pressure loss, whereas a smaller flow leads to a smaller pressure loss and consequently a lower energy consumption.

Fig. 3.1.8: Open system with negative geodetic lift

Open system with negative geodetic lift A typical example of an open system with negative required head is a pressure booster system, e.g. in a water supply system. The geodetic head (h) from the water tank brings water to the consumer - the water flows, although the pump is not running. The difference in height between the liquid level in the tank and the altitude of the water outlet (h) results in a flow equivalent to Qo. However, the head is insufficient to ensure the required flow (Q1) to the consumer. Therefore, the pump has to boost the head to the level (H1) in order to compensate for the friction loss (Hf) in the system. The system is shown in figure 3.1.8 and the system characteristic together with the pump performance curve are shown in figure 3.1.9. The resulting system characteristic is a parabolic curve starting at the H-axes in the point (0,-h). The flow in the system depends on the liquid level in the tank. If we reduce the water level in the tank the height (h) is reduced. This results in a modified system characteristic and a reduced flow in the system, see figure 3.1.9.

100

Fig. 3.1.9: System characteristic together with the pump performance curve for the open system in figure 3.1.8

Section 3.2 Pumps connected in series and parallel

To extend the total pump performance in a system, pumps are often connected in series or parallel. In this section we will concentrate on these two ways of connecting pumps.

3.2.1 Pumps in parallel Pumps connected in parallel are often used when • the required flow is higher than what one single pump can supply • the system has variable flow requirements and when these requirements are met by switching the parallelconnected pumps on and off. Normally, pumps connected in parallel are of similar type and size. However, the pumps can be of different size, or one or several pumps can be speed-controlled and thereby have different performance curves. To avoid bypass circulation in pumps, which are not running, a non-return valve is connected in series with each of the pumps. The resulting performance curve for a system consisting of several pumps in parallel is determined by adding the flow, which the pumps deliver at a specific head.

Fig. 3.2.1: Two pumps connected in parallel with similar performance curves

Figure 3.2.1 shows a system with two identical pumps connected in parallel. The system’s total performance curve is determined by adding Q1 and Q2 for every value of head which is the same for both pumps, H1=H2 . Because the pumps are identical the resulting pump curve has the same maximum head Hmax but the maximum flow Qmax is twice as big. For each value of head the flow is the double as for a single pump in operation:

Q = Q1 + Q2 = 2 Q1 = 2 Q2

101

Section 3.2 Pumps connected in series and parallel

Figure 3.2.2 shows two different sized pumps connected in parallel. When adding Q1 and Q2 for a given head H1=H2, the resulting performance curve is defined. The hatched area in figure 3.2.2 shows that P1 is the only pump to supply in that specific area, because it has a higher maximum head than P2.

Speed-controlled pumps connected in parallel The combination of pumps connected in parallel and speed-controlled pumps is a very useful way to achieve efficient pump performance when the flow demand varies. The method is common in connection with water supply / pressure boosting systems. Later in chapter 4, we will discuss speed-controlled pumps in detail.

Fig 3.2.2: Two pumps connected in parallel with unequal performance curves

A pumping system consisting of two speed-controlled pumps with the same performance curve covers a wide performance range, see figure 3.2.3. One single pump is able to cover the required pump performance up until Q1. Above Q1 both pumps have to operate to meet the performance needed. If both pumps are running at the same speed the resulting pump curves look like the orange curves shown in figure 3.2.3. Please note that the duty point indicated at Q1 is obtained with one pump running at full speed. However, the duty point can also be achieved when two pumps are running at reduced speed. This situation is shown in figure 3.2.4 (orange curves). The figure also compares the two situations with regard to efficiency. The duty point for one single pump running at full speed results in a bad pump efficiency mainly because the duty point is located far out on the pump curve. The total efficiency is much higher when two pumps run at reduced speed, although the maximum efficiency of the pumps decreases slightly at reduced speed. Even though one single pump is able to maintain the required flow and head, it is sometimes necessary due to efficiency and thus energy consumption to use both pumps at the same time. Whether to run one or two pumps depend on the actual system characteristic and the pump type in question.

102

Fig. 3.2.3: Two speed-controlled pumps connected in parallel (same size). The orange curve shows the performance at reduced speed

Fig. 3.2.4: One pump at full speed compared to two pumps at reduced speed. In this case the two pumps have the highest total efficiency

3.2.2. Pumps connected in series Normally, pumps connected in series are used in systems where a high pressure is required. This is also the case for multistage pumps which are based on the series principle, i.e. one stage equals one pump. Figure 3.2.5 shows the performance curve of two identical pumps connected in series. The resulting performance curve is made by marking the double head for each flow value in the system of co-ordinates. This results in a curve with the double maximum head (2⋅Hmax) and the same maximum flow (Qmax) as each of the single pumps.

Fig. 3.2.5: Two equal sized pumps connected in series

Figure 3.2.6 shows two different sized pumps connected in series. The resulting performance curve is found by adding H1 and H2 at a given common flow Q1=Q2. The hatched area in figure 3.2.6 shows that P2 is the only pump to supply in that specific area because it has a higher maximum flow than P1. As discussed in section 3.2.1, unequal pumps can be a combination of different sized pumps or of one or several speed-controlled pumps. The combination of a fixed speed pump and a speed-controlled pump connected in series is often used in systems where a high and constant pressure is required. The fixed speed pump supplies the liquid to the speed-controlled pump, whose output is controlled by a pressure transmitter PT, see figure 3.2.7.

Q Fig. 3.2.6: Two different sized pumps connected in series

Q

Fig. 3.2.7: Equal sized fixed speed pump and speed-controlled pump connected in series. A pressure transmitter PT together with a speed controller is making sure that the pressure is constant at the outlet of P2.

103

Chapter 4. Performance adjustment of pumps

Section 4.1: Adjusting pump performance 4.1.1 Throttle control 4.1.2 Bypass control 4.1.3 Modifying impeller diameter 4.1.4 Speed control 4.1.5 Comparison of adjustment methods 4.1.6 Overall efficiency of the pump system 4.1.7 Example: Relative power consumption when the flow is reduced by 20%

Section 4.2: Speed-controlled pump solutions 4.2.1 Constant pressure control 4.2.2 Constant temperature control 4.2.3 Constant differential pressure in a circulating system 4.2.4 Flow-compensated differential pressure control

Section 4.3: Advantages of speed control

Section 4.4: Advantages of pumps with integrated frequency converter 4.4.1 Performance curves of speed-controlled pumps 4.4.2 Speed-controlled pumps in different systems

Section 4.5: Frequency converter 4.5.1 Basic function and characteristics 4.5.2 Components of the frequency converter 4.5.3 Special conditions regarding frequency converters

Section 4.1 Adjusting pump performance

When selecting a pump for a given application it is important to choose one where the duty point is in the high-efficiency area of the pump. Otherwise, the power consumption of the pump is unnecessarily high – see figure 4.1.1.

H [m]

50 40 70 60 50

30

However, sometimes it is not possible to select a pump that fits the optimum duty point because the requirements of the system change or the system curve changes over time.

20 10 0

Therefore, it can be necessary to adjust the pump performance so that it meets the changed requirements. The most common methods of changing pump performance are: • • • •

Throttle control Bypass control Modifying impeller diameter Speed control

Choosing a method of adjusting the pump performance is based on an evaluation of the initial investment together with the operating costs of the pump. All methods can be carried out continuously during operation apart from the modifying impeller diameter–method. Often, oversized pumps are selected for the system and therefore it is necessary to limit the performance – first of all, the flow rate and in some applications the maximum head. On the following pages you can read about the four adjusting methods.

106

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

40 30 20 10 0 80 Q [m3/h]

Fig.: 4.1.1: When selecting a pump it is important to choose a pump where the duty point is within the high efficiency area.

4.1.1 Throttle control Hp

A throttle valve is placed in series with the pump making it possible to adjust the duty point. The throttling results in a reduction of flow, see figure 4.1.2. The throttle valve adds resistance to the system and raises the system curve to a higher position. Without the throttle valve, the flow is Q2. With the throttle valve connected in series with the pump, the flow is reduced to Q1.

Throttle valve

System Hv

Hs

H Pump

Throttle valves can be used to limit the maximum flow. By adding the valve, the maximum possible flow in the system is limited. In the example, the flow will never be higher than Q3, even if the system curve is completely flat – meaning no resistance at all in the system. When the pump performance is adjusted by the throttling method, the pump will deliver a higher head than necessary for that particular system.

Resulting characteristic Smaller pump System

Hv

Throttle valve

Hs

Q1

Q2

Q

Q3

Fig.: 4.1.2: The throttle valve increases the resistance in the system and consequently reduces the flow.

If the pump and the throttle valve are replaced by a smaller pump, the pump will be able to meet the wanted flow Q1, but at a lower pump head and consequently a lower power consumption, see figure 4.1.2.

4.1.2 Bypass control

Bypass valve

QBP

Instead of connecting a valve in series with the pump, a bypass valve across the pump can be used to adjust the pump performance, see figure 4.1.3. Compared to the throttle valve, installing a bypass valve will result in a certain minimum flow QBP in the pump, independent on the system characteristics. The flow QP is the sum of the flow in the system QS and the flow in the bypass valve QBP.

QP

QS

System

HP

H Bypass valve

Hmax Smaller pump

System

Qs

QBP Resulting characteristic

HP

The bypass valve will introduce a maximum limit of head supplied to the system Hmax , see figure 4.1.3. Even when the required flow in the system is zero, the pump will never run against a closed valve. Like it was in the case with the throttling valve, the required flow QS can be met by a smaller pump and no bypass valve; the result being a lower flow and consequently a lower energy consumption. xx

Pump

QBP

QS

QP

Q

Fig.: 4.1.3: The bypass valve bypasses part of the flow from the pump and thereby reduces the flow in the system

107 5

Section 4.1 Adjusting pump performance

4.1.3 Modifying impeller diameter Another way of adjusting the performance of a centrifugal pump is by modifying the impeller diameter in the pump meaning, reducing the diameter and consequently reducing the pump performance. Obviously, reducing the impeller diameter cannot be done while the pump is operating. Compared to the throttling and bypass methods, which can be carried out during operation, modifying the impeller diameter has to be done in advance before the pump is installed or in connection with service. The following formulas show the relation between the impeller diameter and the pump performance:

Please note that the formulas are an expression of an ideal pump. In practice, the pump efficiency decreases when the impeller diameter is reduced. For minor changes of the impeller diameter Dx > 0.8 . Dn, the efficiency is only reduced by a few %-points. The degree of efficiency reduction depends on pump type and duty point (check specific pump curves for details). As it appears from the formulas, the flow and the head change with the same ratio – that is the ratio change of the impeller diameter in second power. The duty points following the formulas are placed on a straight line starting in (0,0). The change in power consumption is following the diameter change in fourth power.

4.1.4 Speed control The last method of controlling the pump performance that we will cover in this section is the variable speed control method. Speed control by means of a frequency converter is without no doubt the most efficient way of adjusting pump performance exposed to variable flow requirements.

108 xx

D

H

Hn Hx

Dn Dx

Qx

Qn

Q

Fig. 4.1.4: Change in pump performance when the impeller diameter is reduced

The following equations apply with close approximation to how the change of speed of centrifugal pumps influences the performance of the pump:

The affinity laws apply on condition that the system characteristic remains unchanged for nn and nx and forms a parabola through (0,0) – see section 3.1.1. The power equation furthermore implies that the pump efficiency is unchanged at the two speeds. The formulas in figure 4.1.5 show that the pump flow (Q) is proportional to the pump speed (n). The head (H) is proportional to the second power of the speed (n) whereas the power (P) is proportional to the third power of the speed. In practice, a reduction of the speed will result in a slight fall in efficiency. The efficiency at reduced speed (nx) can be estimated by the following formula, which is valid for speed reduction down to 50% of the maximum speed:

Finally, if you need to know precisely how much power you can save by reducing the pump speed, you have to take the efficiency of the frequency converter and the motor into account.

Fig. 4.1.5: System characteristics for different affinity equations

109

Section 4.1 Adjusting pump performance

4.1.5 Comparison of adjustment methods

Now that we have described the four different ways of changing the performance of a centrifugal pump, we will have a look at how they differ from one another. When we consider the pump and its performance-changing power QHsulting performance efficiency device as one unit,Overall we can observe Relative the resulting consumption will havecharacteristic of thisofdevice the pump and compare the result by of 20% the reduction in flow system Relative power sulting performance Overall efficiency different systems. powerby 20% sulting performance Overall efficiency Relative consumption will have of the pump ced Q Considerably consumption by 20% will have 94% of the pump reduction in flow system efficiency Relative power sulting performance Overall Throttle control reduced reduction in flow system consumption by 20% will have of the pump implies a valve connected series ced Q The throttling method Considerably 94% reduction ininflow system ced Q with a pump, see Considerably 94% reduced figure 4.1.6a. This connection acts as reduced ced Q a new pump at unchanged Considerably 94%reduced maximum head but reduced flow performance. The pump curve Hn, the valve curve and the curve covering the complete system - Hx, see figure e 4.1.6b. 110% Considerably ced H and changed e reduced e Bypass control 110% Considerably ced H and changed e When a valve is connected across the pump, see figure 4.1.7a, 110% Considerably ced H and changed reduced this connection actsreduced as a new pump at reduced maximum 110% Considerably ced H and changed head and a QH-curve with a changed characteristic. The reduced curve will tend to be more linear than quadratic, see figure e 4.1.7b

ed e Q and H

Slightly reduced

Modifying impeller diameter

e

67%

The impeller reducing method does not imply67% any extra Slightly reduced ed e Q and H 67% FigureSlightly 4.1.8 shows the reduced QH-curve (Hx) reduced ed Q andcomponents. H and the original curve characteristics (H ). 67% Slightly reduced ed Q and H n

Speed control

The speed control method (figure 1.4.9) results in a new QH-curve at reduced head and flow. The characteristics 65% ed Q and H Slightly reduced of the curves remain the same. However, when speed become more flat, as the 65%head is ed Q andisHreduced the curves Slightly reduced 65% ed Q andreduced H to a higherSlightly degree reduced than the flow.

65% ed Q and H Slightly reduced Compared to the other methods the speed control method also makes it possible to extend the performance range of the pump above the nominal QH-curve, simply by increasing the speed above nominal speed level of the pump, see the Hy-curve in figure 4.1.9. If this oversynchronous operation is used, the size of the motor has to be take into account.

110

a

b Throttle valve Throttle valve Throttle valve

Throttle valve

Hn

Hx

Valve

Fig. 4.1.6: Throttle valve connected in series with a pump

a

Bypass valve

b

Hn Hn

Hx Hx

Valve Valve

Hn

Hx

Valve

Hn

Hx

Valve

Hx Hx

Valve Valve

Hn

Hx

Valve

Hn

Hx

Hn Hn

Hx Hx

Hn

Hx

Hn

Hx

Hy

Hn Hn

Hx Hx

Hy Hy

Hn

Hx

Hy

Bypass valve Bypass valve

Bypass valve

Hn Fig. 4.1.7: Bypass valve connected across the H pump n

D D D

D Speed controller Fig. 4.1.8: Impeller diameter adjustment Speed controller Speed controller

Speed controller

Fig. 4.1.9: Speed controller connected to a pump

4.1.6 Overall efficiency of the pump system Both the throttling and the bypass method introduce some hydraulic power losses in the valves (Ploss = k Q H). Therefore, the resulting efficiency of the pumping system is reduced. Reducing the impeller size in the range of Dx/Dn>0.8 does not have a significant impact on the pump efficiency. Therefore, this method does not have a negative influence on the overall efficiency of the system. The efficiency of speed-controlled pumps is only affected to a limited extent, as long as the speed reduction does not drop below 50% of the nominal speed. Later on, we will discover that the efficiency has only reduced a few %points, and that it does not have an impact on the overall running economy of speed-controlled solutions.

4.1.7 Example: Relative power consumption when the flow is reduced by 20% In an given installation the flow has to be reduced from Q = 60 m3/h to 50 m3/h. In the original starting point (Q = 60 m3/h and H = 70 m), the power input to the pump is set relatively to 100%. Depending on the method of performance adjustment, the power consumption reduction will vary. Now, let us have a look at how the power consumption affects each of the performance adjustment methods.

111

Section 4.1 Adjusting pump performance

Throttle control The power consumption is reduced to about 94% when the flow drops. The throttling results in an increased head, see figure 4.1.10. The maximum power consumption is for some pumps at a lower flow than the maximum flow. If this is the case, the power consumption increases because of the throttle.

H H [m] [m] H [m] H [m]

= Modified duty point = Original duty point

76 76 76 70 76 70 70 55 70 55 55 55 Q Q Q Q

P P222 P 100% P2 100% 100% 94% 100% 94% 94% 94%

Bypass control To reduce the flow in the system, the valve has to reduce the head of the pump to 55 m. This can only be done by increasing the flow in the pump. As it appears from figure 4.1.11, the flow is consequently increased to 81 m3/h, which results in an increased power consumption of up to 10% above the original consumption. The degree of increase depends on the pump type and the duty point. Therefore, in some cases, the increase in P2 is equal to zero and in a few rare cases P2 might even decrease a little.

50 50 50

3 Q Q [m [m33/h] /h] Q [m /h] Q [m3/h]

60 60 60

50 60 Fig. 4.1.10: Relative power consumption - throttle control H H [m] [m] H [m] H [m]

= Modified duty point = Original duty point

70 70 70 70 55 55 55 55

P P P222 P 100% 100%2 100% 100%

Q Q Q Q

110% 110% 110% 110%

Modifying impeller diameter When the impeller diameter is reduced, both the flow and the head of the pump drop. By a flow reduction of 20%, the power consumption is reduced to around 67% of its original consumption, see figure 4.1.12.

50 50 50 50

When it comes to obtaining the best possible efficiency, the impeller diameter adjustment method or the speed control method of the pump are the best suited for reducing the flow in the installation. When the pump has to operate in a fixed, modified duty point, the impeller diameter adjustment method is the best solution. However, when we deal with an installation, where the flow demand varies, the speed-controlled pump is the best solution.

81 81 81 81

Q [m [m3/h] /h] Q Q [m33/h] Q [m3/h]

Fig. 4.1.11: Relative power consumption - bypass control H [m] [m] H H [m] H [m]

= Modified duty point = Original duty point

70 70 70 70 55 55 55 55

Speed control When the speed of the pump is controlled, both the flow and the head are reduced, see figure 4.1.13. Consequently, the power consumption has reduced to around 65% of the original consumption.

60 60 60 60

Q Q Q Q

P P222 P P 100% 100%2 100% 100% 67% 67% 67% 67% 50 50 50 50

60 60 60 60

Q [m [m3/h] Q Q [m33/h] /h] Q [m3/h]

Fig. 4.1.12: Relative power consumption - modifying impeller diameter H [m] [m] H H [m] H [m]

= Modified duty point = Original duty point

70 70 70 70 55 55 55 55 Q Q Q Q

Q Q Q Q

P P P222 P2 100% 100% 100% 100% 65% 65% 65% 65% 50 50 50 50

60 60 60 60

3 Q Q [m [m33/h] /h] Q [m /h] Q [m3/h]

Fig. 4.1.13: Relative power consumption - speed control

112

Summary Figure 4.1.14 gives an overview of the different adjustment methods that we have presented in the previous section. Each method has its pros and cons which have to be taken into account when choosing an adjustment method for a system.

Continuous adjustment possible?

Method

Throttle control

Yes

The resulting performance curve will have Reduced Q

Overall efficiency of the pump system Considerably reduced

Relative power consumption by 20% reduction in flow 94% Throttle valve

Throttle valve

Hn Hx Valve

Yes

Bypass control

Reduced H and changed curve

Considerably reduced

110%

Slightly reduced

67%

Bypass valve

Bypass valve

Hn Hx Valve

Modifying impeller diameter

No

Reduced Q and H

D

D

Hn Hx

Speed control

Yes

Reduced Q and H

Slightly reduced

65% Speed controller

Speed controller

Hn Hx Hy

Fig. 4.1.14: Characteristics of adjustment methods.

113

Section 4.2 Speed-controlled pump solutions

As discussed in the previous section, speed control of pumps is an efficient way of adjusting pump performance to the system. In this section we will discuss the possibilities of combining speed-controlled pumps with PI-controllers and sensors measuring system parameters, such as pressure, differential pressure and temperature. On the following pages, the different options will be presented by examples.

4.2.1 Constant pressure control A pump has to supply tap water from a break tank to different taps in a building. The demand for tap water is varying, so therefore the system characteristic varies according to the required flow. Due to comfort and energy savings a constant supply pressure is recommended. Setpoint pset

As it appears from figure 4.2.1, the solution is a speedcontrolled pump with a PI-controller. The PI-controller compares the needed pressure pset with the actual supply pressure p1, measured by a pressure transmitter PT. If the actual pressure is higher than the setpoint, the PI-controller reduces the speed and consequently the performance of the pump, until p1 = pset. Figure 4.2.1 shows what happens when the flow is reduced from Qmax to Q1 . Setpoint pset Actual value p1 PIThe controller sees to it that the speed of the pump is controller reduced from nn to nx in order to ensure that the required Pressure discharge pressure is p1 = pset. Break The pump installation transmitter Speed ensures that the supply pressure tank is constant controller in the flow range of 0 - Qmax. The supply pressure is independent PT on the level (h) in the breakh tank. If h changes, the PI1 controller adjusts the speed of the pump so Q that p1 alwaysp1 H1 corresponds to the setpoint.

PIcontroller

Break tank

Actual value p1

H

Pressure transmitter

Speed controller

n

PT

h

pset Taps

p1

Q1 H1

h

H nn nx pset Taps

h

Q1

Qmax

Q

Fig. 4.2.1: Water supply system with speed-controlled pump delivering constant pressure to the system

114

4.2.2 Constant temperature control Performance adjustment by means of speed control is suitable for a number of industrial applications. Figure 4.2.2 shows a system with an injection moulding machine which has to be water-cooled to ensure high quality production. The machine is cooled with water at 15oC from a cooling plant. To ensure that the moulding machine runs properly and is cooled sufficiently, the return pipe temperature has to be kept at a constant level; tr = 20oC. The solution is a speed-controlled pump, controlled by a PI-controller. The PI-controller compares the needed temperature tset with the actual return pipe temperature tr, which is measured by a temperature transmitter TT. This system has a fixed system characteristic and therefore the duty point of the pump is located on the curve between Qmin and Qmax. The higher the heat loss in the machine, the higher the flow of cooling water needed to ensure that the return pipe temperature is kept at a constant level of 20 oC.

Fig. 4.2.2: System with injection moulding machine and temperaturecontrolled circulator pump ensuring a constant return pipe temperature

4.2.3 Constant differential pressure in a circulating system Circulating systems (closed systems), see chapter 3, are well-suited for speed-controlled pump solutions. It is an advantage that circulating systems with variable system characteristic are fitted with a differential pressurecontrolled circulator pump, see figure 4.2.3. The figure shows a heating system consisting of a heat exchanger where the circulated water is heated up and delivered to three consumers, e.g. radiators, by a speedcontrolled pump. A control valve is connected in series at each consumer to control the flow according to the heat requirement. The pump is controlled according to a constant differential pressure, measured across the pump. This means that the pump system offers constant differential pressure in the Q-range of 0 – Qmax, depicted as the horizontal line in figure 4.2.3.

Fig. 4.2.3: Heating system with speed-controlled circulator pump delivering constant differential pressure to the system

115

Section 4.2 Speed-controlled pump solutions

4.2.4 Flow-compensated differential pressure control

Setpoint Hset

The main function of the pumping system in figure 4.2.4 is to maintain a constant differential pressure across the control valves at the consumers, e.g. radiators. In order to do so, the pump has to be able to overcome friction losses in pipes, heat exchangers, fittings, etc.

Such a pumping system can be designed in two different ways:

Actual value H1

Speed controller

H

Q1

Hset DPT1

As we discussed in chapter 3, the pressure loss in a system Setpoint Hset Actual value H1 PIis proportional to the flow in secondcontroller power. The best way to control a circulator pump in a system like the one shown in the figure on your right, is to allow the pump to deliver a Speed pressure, which increases when the controller flow increases. When the demand of flow is low,Qthe pressure losses in the 1 pipes, heat exchangers, fittings, etc. are low as well, and the pump only supplies a pressure equivalent to what the DPT1 control valve requires, Hset-Hf. When the demand of flow DPT 2 increases, the pressure losses increase in second power and therefore the pump has to increase the delivered pressure; depicted as the blue curve in figure 4.2.4.

PIcontroller

Hf DPT2

H

nn nx Hset Hf

H1

Q1

Qmax

Q

Fig. 4.2.4: Heating system with speed-controlled circulator pump delivering flow-compensated differential pressure to the system

• The differential pressure transmitter is placed across the pump and the system is running with flow-compensated differential pressure control – DPT1, see figure 4.2.4.

• The differential pressure transmitter is placed close to the consumers and the system is running with differential pressure control – DPT2 in fig. 4.2.4. The advantage of the first solution is that the pump, the PI-controller, the speed control and the transmitter are placed close to one another, making the installation easy. This installation makes it possible to get the entire system as one single unit, see section 4.4. In order to get the system up and running, pump curve data have to be stored in the controller. These data are used to calculate the flow and likewise to calculate how much the setpoint Hset has

116

to be reduced at a given flow to ensure that the pump performance meets the required blue curve in figure 4.2.4. The second solution with the transmitter placed in the installation requires more installation costs because the transmitter has to be installed at the installation site and the necessary cabling has to be carried out as well. The performance of this system is more or less similar to the first system. The transmitter measures the differential pressure at the consumer and compensates automatically for the increase in required pressure in order to overcome the increase in pressure losses in the supply pipes, etc.

Section 4.3 Advantages of speed control

A large number of pump applications do not require full pump performance 24 hours a day. Therefore, it is an advantage to be able to adjust the pump’s performance in the system automatically. As we saw in section 4.1, the best possible way of adapting the performance of a centrifugal pump is by means of speed control of the pump. Speed control of pumps is normally made by a frequency converter unit. On the following pages we will have a look at speedcontrolled pumps in closed and open systems. But before we dig any further into the world of speed control, we will present the advantages that speed control provides and the benefits that speed-controlled pumps with frequency converter offer.

Reduced energy consumption Speed-controlled pumps only use the amount of energy needed to solve a specific pump job. Compared to other control methods, frequency-controlled speed control offers the highest efficiency and thus the most efficient utilization of the energy, see section 4.1.

Low life cycle costs As we will see in chapter 5, the energy consumption of a pump is a very important factor considering a pump’s life cycle costs. Therefore, it is important to keep the operating costs of a pumping system at the lowest possible level. Efficient operation leads to lower energy consumption and thus to lower operating costs. Compared to fixed speed pumps, it is possible to reduce the energy consumption by up to 50% with a speed-controlled pump.

Protection of the environment Energy efficient pumps polute less and thus do not harm the environment.

Increased comfort Speed control in different pumping systems provides increased comfort: In water supply systems, automatic pressure control and soft-start of pumps reduce water hammer and noise generated by too high pressure in the system. In circulating systems, speed-controlled pumps ensure that the differential pressure is kept at a level so that noise in the system is minimised.

Reduced system costs Speed-controlled pumps can reduce the need for commissioning and control valves in the system. Therefore, the total system costs can be reduced.

Kapitel 1 117 5

Section 4.4 Advantages of pumps with integrated frequency converter

In many applications, pumps with integrated frequency converter is the optimum solution. The reason is that these pumps combine the benefits of a speed-controlled pump solution with the benefits gained from combining a pump, a frequency converter, a PI-controller and sometimes also a sensor/pressure transmitter in one single unit – see figure 4.4.1. A pump with integrated frequency converter is not just a pump, but a system which is able to solve application problems or save energy in a variety of pump installations. As regards replacement, pumps with integrated frequency converters are ideal as they can be installed instead of fixed speed pumps at no extra installation cost. All that is required is a power supply connection and a fitting of the pump with integrated frequency converter in the pipe system, and then the pump is ready for operation. All the installer has to do is to adjust the required setpoint (pressure) after which the system is operational.

Setpoint

PIcontroller

Frequency converter

M

What follows is a brief description of the advantages that pumps with integrated frequency converter have to offer. PT

Easy to install Pumps with integrated frequency converter are just as easy to install as fixed speed pumps. All you have to do is to connect the motor to the electrical power supply and the pump is in operation. The manufacturer has made all internal connections and adjustments.

Optimal energy savings Because the pump, the motor and the frequency converter are designed for compatibility, operation of the pump system reduces power consumption.

One supplier One supplier can provide pump, frequency converter and sensor which naturally facilitate the dimensioning, selection, ordering procedures, as well as maintenance and service procedures.

118

Fig. 4.4.1: Pump unit with integrated frequency converter and pressure transmitter

Wide performance range Pumps with integrated frequency converter have a very broad performance range, which enables them to perform efficiently under widely varied conditions and to meet a wide range of requirements. Thus, fewer pumps can replace many fixed speed pump types with narrow performance capabilities. H [m] 100%

4.4.1. Performance curves of speedcontrolled pumps Now, let us have a closer look at how you can read a speed-controlled pump’s performance curve. Figure 4.4.2 shows an example of the performance curves of a speed-controlled pump. The first curve shows the QHcurve and the second curve shows the corresponding power consumption curve. As you can tell, the performance curves are given for every 10% decrease in speed from 100% down to 50%. Likewise, the minimum curve represented by 25% of the maximum speed is also shown. As we have indicated in the diagram, you can point out a specific duty point QH and find out at which speed the duty point can be reached and what the power consumption P1 is.

4.4.2 Speed-controlled pumps in different systems Speed-controlled pumps are used in a wide range of systems. The change in pump performance and consequently the potential energy saving depend on the system in question. As we discussed in chapter 3, the characteristic of a system is an indication of the required head a pump has to deliver, in order to transport a certain quantity of liquid through the system. Figure 4.4.3 shows the performance curve and the system characteristic of a closed and an open system.

70

90% 60 86% 50 80% 40

70%

30 60% 20 10

50%

25%

0

5

10

15

20

25

35

30

Q [m3/h]

P [kW]

1

6 4

2 0

Q [m3/h]

Fig 4.4.2: Performance curve for a speed-controlled pump

H

H

H

H

Pump curve

Pump curve

System characteristic HO HO

Closed system

Q

Q

System characteristic

Open system

Q

Q

Fig 4.4.3: System characteristic point of a closed and an open system

119

Section 4.4 Advantages of pumps with integrated frequency converter

Speed-controlled pumps in closed systems 2

Q = 15 m /h

In closed systems, like heating and air-conditioning systems, the pump has only to overcome the friction losses in the pipes, valves, heat exchangers, etc. In this section, we will present an example with a speed-controlled pump in a closed system. The total friction loss by a full flow of 15 m3/h is 16 m, see figure 4.4.4. The system characteristic starts in the point (0,0), the red line in figure 4.4.5. The control valves in the system always need a certain operating pressure, so therefore the pump cannot work according to the system characteristic. That is why some speed-controlled pumps offer the proportional pressure control function, which ensures that the pump will operate according to the orange line shown in the figure. As you can tell from the figure 4.4.5, the minimum performance is around 57% of the full speed. In a circulating system operation at the minimum curve (25% of the full speed) can be relevant in some situations, for example when we deal with night-time duty in heating systems.

H

Boiler or like

Consumers Fig. 4.4.4: Closed system

H [m] 100% 24

99% 90%

20

80% 16

70% 12

60% 8

50%

4

25% 0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

Q [m3/h]

P1 [kW] 1.2 0.8 0.4 0

Fig. 4.4.5: A speed-controlled pump in a closed system

120

Q [m3/h]

Speed-controlled pumps in open systems The system characteristic as well as the operating range of the pump depend on the type of system in question. Figure 4.4.6 shows a pump in a pressure boosting / water supply system. The pump has to supply Q = 6.5 m3/h to the tap, which is placed h = 20 m above the pump. The inlet pressure to the pump ps is 1 bar, the pressure at the tap pt has to be 2 bar and the total friction loss in the system by full flow pf is 1.3 bar.

Fig. 4.4.6: Pump in a water supply system

Figure 4.4.7 shows the QH-curve of a pump, which is able to meet the requirements described before. You can calculate the required head at zero flow (Ho) by using the equation on your right.

Q = 6.5 m3/h

pt = 2 bar

h = 20 m

pf = 1.3 bar ps = 1 bar

H

pt - Pressure at tapping point ps - Suction pressure

pf pf - Friction loss

If you need to calculate the maximum head at a flow (Q) of 6.5 m3/h, this is the equation to use:

Hmax = Ho +

ρ.g Q - Flow rate h

pf 1.3 . 10 = 30.2 + = 43.5 m ρ.g 998 . 9.81 5

Hmax = Ho +

5 . 10 To cover this from zero flow to maximum flow pt application (2-1) - ps H = h + = 20 + = 30.2 m speed 3 o Q = 6.5 m /h a relative narrow ρ .the g pump operates 998 .in9.81 band, that is from about 65% of the full speed and up to 99% of the full speed. In systems with less friction loss the variation in speed will be even smaller. If no friction loss, the minimum speed in the above case is about 79% speed.

As you can tell from the previous two examples, the possible variation in speed and consequently in power consumption is highest in closed systems. Therefore, the closed systems account for the highest energy saving potential.

= 30.2 +

1.3 . 105 = 43.5 m 998 . 9.81

- Static lift

(2-1) . 105 p -p Ho = h + ρt. s = 20 + = 30.2 m g 998 . 9.81

H [m] 100% 60 50 40

HO 20 10 0 P1 [kW]

90% 80% 70% 60% 50%

25%

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8 Q [m3/h]

1.2 0.8 0.4 0 Q [m3/h]

Fig. 4.4.7: A speed-controlled pump in an open system

121

Section 4.5 Frequency converter

As mentioned earlier, speed control of pumps involves a frequency converter. Therefore, it will be relevant to have a closer look at a frequency converter, how it operates and finally to discuss related precautions by using this device.

4.5.1 Basic function and characteristics It is a well-known fact that the speed of an asynchronous motor depends primarily on the pole number of the motor and the frequency of the voltage supplied. The amplitude of the voltage supplied and the load on the motor shaft also influence the motor speed, however, not to the same degree. Consequently, changing the frequency of the supply voltage is an ideal method for asynchronous motor speed control. In order to ensure a correct motor magnetisation it is also necessary to change the amplitude of the voltage.

T

f2

f1 > f2

f1

4.5.2. Components of the frequency converter In principle, all frequency converters consist of the same functional blocks. The basic function is as mentioned previously, to convert the mains voltage supply into a new AC voltage with another frequency and amplitude. The frequency converter first of all rectifies the incoming mains voltage and then stores the energy in an intermediate circuit consisting of a capacitor. The DC voltage is then converted into a new AC voltage with another frequency and amplitude. Because of the intermediate circuit in the frequency converter the frequency of the mains voltage has no direct influence on the output frequency and thus to the motor speed. It does not matter if the frequency is 50Hz or 60Hz as the rectifier can handle both situations. Additionally, the incoming frequency will not influence the output frequency, as this is defined by the voltage/frequency pattern, which is defined in the inverter. Keeping the above-mentioned facts in mind, using a frequency converter in connection with asynchronous motors provides the following benefits:

• The system can be used in both 50 and 60 cycle n Fig. 4.5.1: Displacement of motor torque characteristic

A frequency/voltage control results in a displacement of the torque characteristic whereby the speed is changed. Figure 4.5.1 shows the motor torque characteristic (T) as a function of the speed (n) at two different frequencies/voltages. In the same diagram is also drawn the load characteristic of the pump. As it appears from the figure, the speed is changed by changing frequency/voltage of the motor. The frequency converter changes frequency and voltage, so therefore we can conclude that the basic task of a frequency converter is to change the fixed supply voltage/ frequency, e.g. 3x400 V/ 50Hz, into a variable voltage/ frequency.

areas without any modifications

• The output frequency of the frequency converter is independent on the incoming frequency

• The frequency converter can supply output frequencies higher than mains supply frequency – makes oversynchronous operation possible. As you can tell from figure 4.5.2, the frequency converter consists of three other components as well: An EMC filter, a control circuit and an inverter. Mains supply AC EMC filter

Rectifier

Intermediate circuit DC

Inverter

Control circuit

Fig. 4.5.2: Functional blocks of the frequency converter

122

The EMC filter This block is not part of the primary function of the frequency converter and therefore, in principle, could be left out of the frequency converter. However, in order to meet the requirements of the EMC directive of the European Union or other local requirements, the filter is necessary. The EMC filter ensures that the frequency converter does not send unacceptably high noise signal back to the mains thus disturbing other electronic equipment connected to the mains. At the same time the filter ensures that noise signals in the mains generated by other equipment do not enter the electronic devices of the frequency converter causing damage or disturbances.

The control circuit The control circuit block has two functions: It controls the frequency converter and at the same time it takes care of the entire communication between the product and the surroundings.

Umotor Mean value of voltage

The inverter

0

The output voltage from a frequency converter is not sinusoidal like the normal mains voltage is. The voltage supplied to the motor consists of a number of square-wave pulses, see figure 4.5.3. The mean value of these pulses forms a sinusoidal voltage of the desired frequency and amplitude. The switching frequency can be from a few kHz up to 20 kHz, depending on the brand. To avoid noise generation in the motor windings, a frequency converter with a switching frequency above the range of audibility (~16 kHz) is preferable. This principle of inverter operation is called PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) control and it is the control principle which is used most often in frequency converters today. The motor current itself is almost sinusoidal. This is shown in figure 4.5.4 (a) indicating motor current (top) and motor voltage. In figure 4.5.4 (b) a section of the motor voltage is shown. This indicates how the pulse/pause ratio of the voltage changes.

0 t T = 1/fm Fig 4.5.3: AC voltage with variable frequency (fm) and variable voltage (Umotor)

a

b

0 0

*

* Detail

Fig 4.5.4: a) Motor current (top) and motor voltage at PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) control. b) Section of motor voltage

123

Section 4.5 Frequency converter

4.5.3 Special conditions regarding frequency converters a

b

By installing and using frequency converters or pumps with integrated frequency converters, there are some conditions, which the installer and user have to be aware of. A frequency converter will behave differently at the mains supply side than a standard asynchronous motor. This is described in detail below.

Non-sinusoidal power input, three-phase supplied frequency converters A frequency converter designed as the one described above will not receive sinusoidal current from the mains. Among other things this influences the dimensioning of mains supply cable, mains switch, etc. Figure 4.5.5 shows how mains current and voltage appear for a: a) three-phase, two-pole standard asynchronous motor b) three-phase, two-pole standard asynchronous motor with frequency converter. In both cases the motor supplies 3 kW to the shaft.

A comparison of the current in the two cases shows the following differences, see figure 4.5.6:

• The current for the system with frequency converter is not sinusoidal

• The peak current is much higher (approx. 52% higher) for the frequency converter solution This is due to the design of the frequency converter connecting the mains to a rectifier followed by a capacitor. The charging of the capacitor happens during short time periods in which the rectified voltage is higher than the voltage in the capacitor at that moment. As mentioned above, the non-sinusoidal current results in other conditions at the mains supply side of the motor. For a standard motor without a frequency converter the relation between voltage (U), current (I) and power (P) is shown in the box on your right hand side. The same formula cannot be used for the calculation of the power input in connection with motors with frequency converters.

124

Fig 4.5.5 a): Three-phase, two-pole Fig 4.5.5 b): Three-phase, two-pole standard asynchronous motor standard asynchronous motor with frequency converter

Standard motor Mains voltage

400 V

Motor with frequency converter 400 V

Mains current RMS

6.4 A

6.36 A

Mains current, peak

9.1 A

13.8 A

3.68 kW

3.69 kW

cosϕ = 0.83

PF = 0.86

Power input, P1 cos ϕ, power factor (PF)

Fig. 4.5.6: Comparison of current of a standard motor and a frequency converter

In fact, in this case, there is no safeway of calculating the power input based on simple current and voltage measurements, as these are not sinusoidal. Instead, the power must be calculated by means of instruments and on the basis of instantaneous measurements of current and voltage. If the power (P) is known as well as the RMS value of current and voltage, the so-called power factor (PF) can be calculated by the formula on your right hand side. Unlike what is the case when current and voltage are sinusoidal, the power factor has no direct connection with the way in which current and voltage are displaced in time. When measuring the input current in connection with installation and service of a system with frequency converter it is necessary to use an instrument that is capable of measuring “non-sinusoidal” currents. In general, current measuring instruments for frequency converters must be of a type measuring “True RMS”.

Frequency converters and earth-leakage circuit breakers (ELCB) Earth-leakage circuit breakers are used increasingly as extra protection in electrical installations. If a frequency converter is to be connected to such an installation it must be ensured that the ELCB installed is of a type which will surely brake - also if failure occurs on the DC side of the frequency converter. In order to be sure that the ELCB always will brake in case of earth-leakage current the ELCB’s to be used in connection with frequency converter must be labelled with the signs shown in figures 4.5.7 and 4.5.8

Fig 4.5.7: Labelling of the ELCB for single-phase frequency converters

Fig 4.5.8: Labelling of the ELCB for three-phase frequency converters

Both types of earth-leakage circuit breaker are available in the market today.

125

Chapter 5. Life cycle costs calculation

Section 5.1: Life cycle costs equation 5.1.1 Initial costs, purchase price (Cic) 5.1.2 Installation and commissioning costs (Cin) 5.1.3 Energy costs (Ce) 5.1.4 Operating costs (Co) 5.1.5 Environmental costs (Cenv) 5.1.6 Maintenance and repair costs (Cm) 5.1.7 Downtime costs (loss of production) (Cs) 5.1.8 Decommissioning and disposal costs (Co)

Section 5.2: Life cycle costs calculation – an example

Energy costs 90%

Maintenance costs 2-5% Initial costs 5-8%

Section 5.1 Life cycle costs equation

In this section we will focus on the elements that make up a pump’s life cycle costs (LCC) in order to understand what LCC is, which factors to consider when we calculate it and how to calculate it. Finally, we will illustrate the notion life cycle costs by an example. But before we dig any further into life cycle costs, we need to understand what the notion covers. The life cycle costs of a pump is an expression of how much it costs to purchase, install, operate, maintain and dispose of a pump during its lifetime. Fig. 5.1.1: A guide to life cycle costs analysis for pumping systems

The Hydraulic Institute, Europump and the US Department of Energy have elaborated a tool called the Pump Life cycle costs (LCC), see figure 5.1.1. The tool is designed to help companies minimise the waste and maximise the energy efficiency in different systems including pumping systems. Life cycle cost calculations are a decision-making tool that can be used in connection with design of new installations or repair of existing installations.

Typical life cycle costs

Initial costs Maintenance costs Energy costs

The life cycle costs (LCC) consist of the following elements: Cic Cin Ce Co Cemv Cm Cs Cd

Initial costs, purchase price Installation and commissioning costs Energy costs Operating costs (labour costs) Environmental costs Maintenance and repair costs Downtime costs (loss of production) Decommissioning/disposal costs

In the following paragraphs, each of these elements is described. As it appears from figure 5.1.2, the energy costs, initial costs and maintenance costs are the most important.

128

Fig. 5.1.2: Typical life cycle costs of a circulating system in the industry

LCC is calculated by the following formula: LCC = Cic + Cin + Ce + Co + Cm + Cs + Cemv + Cd

5.1.1 Initial costs, purchase price (Cic) The initial costs (Cic) of a pump system includes all equipment and accessories necessary to operate the system, e.g pumps, frequency converters, control panels and transmitters, see figure 5.1.3.

Initial costs

Often, there is a trade-off between the initial costs and the energy and maintenance costs. Thus, in many cases expensive components have a longer lifetime or a lower energy consumption than inexpensive components have.

5.1.2 Installation and commissioning costs (Cin)

Control panels

Pump

Frequency converter

Transmitter

Fig. 5.1.3: Equipment that makes up a pumping system

8000 7000

The installation and commissioning costs include the following costs:

6000 5000 4000 3000

• • • •

Installation of the pumps Foundation Connection of electrical wiring and instrumentation Installation, connection and set-up of transmitters, frequency converters, etc. • Commissioning evaluation at start-up

2000 1000 0

Initial costs

System 1 5200

System 2 7300

Fig. 5.1.4: Initial costs of a constant speed pump system (system 1) and a controlled pump system (system 2)

As was the case for the initial costs, it is important to check the trade-off options. In connection with pumps with integrated frequency converter, many of the components are already integrated in the product. Therefore, this kind of pump is often subject to higher initial costs and lower installation and commissioning costs.

129

Section 5.1 Life cycle costs equation

5.1.3 Energy costs (Ce ) In the majority of cases, energy consumption is the largest cost in the life cycle costs of a pump system, where pumps often run more than 2000 hours per year. Actually, around 20% of the world’s electrical energy consumption is used for pump systems, see figure 5.1.5. What follows is a list of some of the factors influencing the energy consumption of a pump system: • Load profile • Pump efficiency (calculation of the duty point), see figure 5.1.6 • Motor efficiency (the motor efficiency at partial load can vary significantly between high efficiency motors and normal efficiency motors) • Pump sizing (often margins and round ups tend to suggest oversized pumps) • Other system components, such as pipes and valves • Use of speed-controlled solutions. By using speedcontrolled pumps in the industry, it is possible to reduce the energy consumption by up to 50%

5.1.4 Operating costs (Co ) Operating costs cover labour costs related to the operation of a pumping system. In most cases the labour costs related to the pumps are modest. Today different types of surveillance equipment make it possible to connect the pump system to a computer network, making the operating costs low.

5.1.5 Environmental costs(Cenv) The environmental costs cover the disposal of parts and contamination from the pumped liquid. The environmental factor’s contribution to the life cycle costs of a pumping system in the industry is modest.

130

Other use 80%

Pump systems 20%

Fig. 5.1.5: Energy consumption worldwide

η [%] 80

New Existing

60 40 20 0

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

Q [M3/h]

Fig. 5.1.6: Comparison of the efficiency of a new and an existing pump

5.1.6 Maintenance and repair costs (Cm) Maintenance and repair costs cover as the name implies all costs related to maintenance and repair of the pump system, for example: Labour costs, spare parts, transportation and cleaning. The best way to obtain the optimum working life of a pump and to prevent breakdowns is to carry out preventive maintenance.

5.1.7 Downtime costs, loss of production costs (Cs) Downtime costs are extremely important when it comes to pump systems used in production processes. The reason is simple; it costs a lot of money to stop a production, even for a shorter period of time. Even though one pump is enough for the required pump performance, it is always a good idea to install a standby pump that can take over and make sure that the production continues even if an unexpected failure in the pump system should occur, see figure 5.1.7. Fig. 5.1.7: Standby pump makes sure that production continues in case of pump break-down

5.1.8 Decommissioning and disposal costs (Cd ) Depending on the pump manufacturer, decommissioning and disposal costs of a pump system are subject to minor variations. Therefore, this cost is seldom taken into consideration.

Calculating the life cycle costs The life cycle costs of a pump system is made up of the summation of all the above-mentioned components over the system’s lifetime. Typically, the lifetime is said to be in the range of 10 to 20 years. In the pump business, the life cycle costs are normally calculated by a more simplified formula with fewer elements to consider. This formula is shown on your right.

LCC = Cic + Ce + Cm

131

Section 5.2 Life cycle costs calculation – an example

Life cycle costs calculations will help determine which pump to install in the system. The application has the following characteristics: • 12 operating hours per day • 220 operating hours per year • Lifetime of 10 years (calculation period) Based on these data, it is possible to calculate the life cycle costs of the two solutions. Even though the initial costs of a variable speed pump are twice as high compared to a fixed speed pump, the total costs of the first-mentioned solution are 25% lower than the fixed speed pump solution after 10 years. Besides the lower life cycle costs, the variable speed pump provides, as discussed in chapter 4, some operational benefits, e.g. constant pressure in the system.

kW

18.76

11.31

Operating hours per day Working days per year

hours days

12 220

12 220

Calculation period

years

10

10

Total energy consumption

kWh

495,264

298,584

Electrical power price Pump types Pump price Maintenance costs Average power consumption Energy costs Operating hours per day Total costs Working days per year

Euro/kWh Euro Euro kW Euro hours Euro days

Calculation period

years

Total energy 45,000consumption

kWh 495,264 Pump price Euro/kWh 0.07 Maintenance costs Euro 3,602 Energy costs Euro 1,417 Euro 33,284

298,584

40,000 Electrical power price Pump 35,000 price 30,000 Maintenance costs Energy25,000 costs Total costs 20,000

Euro

28,688

0.07 Fixed 3,602 speed 1,417 18.76 33,284 12 38,303 220

0.07 Variable 7,204 speed 1,417 11.31 20,066 12 28,688 220

10

10

0.07 7,204 1,417 20,066

38,303

15,000 10,000 45,000

Pump price

40,000 5,000

Maintenance costs

0 35,000

Energy costs speed Variable 30,000 Fig. 5.1.8: Life cycle costs of a fixed and a variable speed pump 25,000 45,000 20,000 40,000 15,000 35,000 10,000 30,000 5,000 25,000 0 20,000 Fixed speed Variable speed 15,000 Fixed speed 10,000 45,000 Fixed speed

Variable speed

40,000 5,000 0 35,000

30,000 0 Euro

The payback time of the variable speed pump solution is a bit longer because the pump is more expensive. As you can tell from figure 5.1.9, the payback time is around 2½ years, and in general industrial applications, this is considered to be a good investment.

Variable speed

Average power consumption

Euro

Calculations show that compared to the fixed speed pump, the variable speed pump consumes 40% less energy. However, the initial costs (Cic) of the variable speed pump is twice as high as that of the fixed speed pump.

Fixed speed

Euro

• A fixed speed multistage centrifugal pump • A variable speed multistage centrifugal pump

Pump types

Euro

Let us have a look at an example using the simplified formula mentioned previously: An industry needs a new water supply pump and two solutions are taken into consideration:

2

4

Years

6

8

10

25,000 20,000 15,000 Fixed speed

10,000

Variable speed

5,000 0 0

2

4

Years

6

8

Fig. 5.1.9: Payback time for a fixed and a variable speed pump

132

10

Appendix I

Appendix H

Appendix A) Notations and units B) Unit conversion tables C) SI-prefixes and Greek alphabet D) Vapour pressure and density of water at different temperatures E) Orifice F) Change in static pressure due to change in pipe diameter G) Nozzles H) Nomogram for head losses in bends, valves, etc. I)

Pipe loss nomogram for clean water 20˚C

J) Periodical system K) Pump standards L) Viscosity for different liquids as a function of liquid temperature

Appendix A

Notations and units The table below provides an overview of the most commonly used notations and units in connection with pumps and pump systems.

134

grees lsius

Appendix B

Unit conversion tables The conversion tables for pressure and flow show the most commonly used units in connection with pumping systems

Pressure Pascal (=Newton per square metre)

bar

kilopond per square metre

meter Water Column

Technical atmosphere

Physical atmosphere

pound per square inch

Pa, (N/m2)

bar

kp/m2

1 105 9.8067 9806.7 98067 101325 6895

10-5 1 9.807 . 105

0.1020 10197 1 103 104 10333 703.1

mWC 1.020 . 10-4

at (kp/cm2) 1.020 . 10-5

atm 9.869 . 10-4

psi (lb/in2) 1.450 . 10-4

10.20 10-3 1 10 10.33 0.7031

1.020 10-4 0.1 1 1.033 0.07031

0.9869 0.9678 . 10-4 0.09678 0.9678 1 0.06804

14.50 1.422 . 10-3 1.422 14.22 14.70 1

1 Pa 1 bar 1 kp/m2 1 mWC 1 at 1 atm 1 psi

0.09807 0.9807 1.013 0.06895

1 Pa 1 bar 1 kp/m2 1 mWC 1 at 1 atm 1 psi

Flow (volume)

3

1 m /s 1 m3/h 1 l/s 1 UK GPM 1 US GPM

Cubic metre per second

Cubic metre per hour

Litre per second

Gallon (UK) per minute

Gallon (US) per minute

m3/s

m3/h

1 l/s

UK GPM

UK GPM

1 2.778 . 10-4

3600 1 3.6 0.02728 0.02271

1000 0.2778 1 0.07577 0.06309

1320 3.667 13.21 1 0.8327

15651 4.403 15.85 1.201 1

10-3 7.577 . 10-5 6.309 . 10-5

1 m3/s 1 m3/h 1 l/s 1 UK GPM 1 US GPM

Temperature The formulas listed below show how to convert the most commonly used units for temperature. From degrees Celsius to Kelvin: T [K] = 273.15 + t [oC] From degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit: t [oF] = 32 + 1.8 t [oC] Degrees Kelvin Celsius

Degrees Kelvin Fahrenheit

Degrees Fahrenheit

˚C

˚CK

K ˚F

˚F

∆T, ∆t

0 00 17.8

273.15 0 373.15 100 -255.35 17.8

273.15 32 373.15 212 255.35 0

32 212 0

1 ˚C = 1K= 1 ˚F =

∆t

∆t ∆t

∆t ∆t

∆t

˚C∆T, ∆t

˚CK

K ˚F

˚F

11 11 9/5 9/5

5/9 1 5/9 1 9/5 1

5/9 5/9 1

11 ˚C = 11 K = 9/5 1 ˚F =

135

Appendix C

SI-prefixes and Greek alphabet

Factor 109 106 103 102 10 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9

1,000,000,000 1,000,000 1,000 100 10 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000.001 0.000.000.001

Prefix

Symbol

giga mega kilo hekto deka deci centi milli mikro nano

G M k h da d c m µ n

Greek alphabet

136

Alfa

Α

α

Beta

Β

β

Gamma

Γ

γ

Delta



δ

Epsilon

Ε

ε

Zeta

Ζ

ζ

Eta

Η

η

Theta

Θ

θ

Jota

Ι

ι

Kappa

Κ

κ

Lambda

Λ

λ

My

Μ

µ

Ny

Ν

ν

Ksi

ΚΣ

κσ

Omikron

Ο

ο

Pi

Π

π

Rho

Ρ

ρ

Sigma

Σ

σ

Tau

Τ

τ

Ypsilon

Υ

υ

Fi

Φ

φ

Khi

Χ

χ

Psi

Ψ

ψ

Omega



ω

Appendix D

Vapour pressure and density of water at different temperatures This table shows the vapour pressure p [bar] and the density ρ [kg/m3] of water at different temperatures t [oC]. Likewise, the table shows the corresponding absolute temperature T [K].

Vapour pressure p and density ρ of water at different temperatures T[K]

P[bar]

ρ[kg/m3]

t[°C]

T[K]

P[bar]

ρ[kg/m3]

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

273.15 274.15 275.15 276.15 277.15 278.15 279.15 280.15 281.15 282.15 283.15

0.00611 0.00657 0.00706 0.00758 0.00813 0.00872 0.00935 0.01001 0.01072 0.01147 0.01227

0999.8 0999.9 0999.9 0999.9 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 999.9 999.9 999.8 999.7

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

334.15 335.15 336.15 337.15 338.15 339.15 340.15 341.15 342.15 343.15

0.2086 0.2184 0.2286 0.2391 0.2501 0.2615 0.2733 0.2856 0.2984 0.3116

982.6 982.1 981.6 981.1 980.5 979.9 979.3 978.8 978.2 977.7

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

284.15 285.15 286.15 287.15 288.15 289.15 290.15 291.15 292.15 293.15

0.01312 0.01401 0.01497 0.01597 0.01704 0.01817 0.01936 0.02062 0.02196 0.02337

999.7 999.6 999.4 999.3 999.2 999.0 998.8 998.7 998.5 998.3

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

344.15 345.15 346.15 347.15 348.15 349.15 350.15 351.15 352.15 353.15

0.3253 0.3396 0.3543 0.3696 0.3855 0.4019 0.4189 0.4365 0.4547 0.4736

977.0 976.5 976.0 975.3 974.8 974.1 973.5 972.9 972.3 971.6

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

294.15 295.15 296.15 297.15 298.15 299.15 300.15 301.15 302.15 303.15

0.02485 0.02642 0.02808 0.02982 0.03166 0.03360 0.03564 0.03778 0.04004 0.04241

998.1 997.8 997.6 997.4 997.1 996.8 996.6 996.3 996.0 995.7

81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

354.15 355.15 356.15 357.15 358.15 359.15 360.15 361.15 362.15 363.15

0.4931 0.5133 0.5342 0.5557 0.5780 0.6011 0.6249 0.6495 0.6749 0.7011

971.0 970.4 969.7 969.1 968.4 967.8 967.1 966.5 965.8 965.2

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

304.15 305.15 306.15 307.15 308.15 309.15 310.15 311.15 312.15 313.15

0.04491 0.04753 0.05029 0.05318 0.05622 0.05940 0.06274 0.06624 0.06991 0.07375

995.4 995.1 994.7 994.4 994.0 993.7 993.3 993.0 992.7 992.3

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

364.15 365.15 366.15 367.15 368.15 369.15 370.15 371.15 372.15 373.15

0.7281 0.7561 0.7849 0.8146 0.8453 0.8769 0.9094 0.9430 0.9776 1.0133

964.4 963.8 963.0 962.4 961.6 961.0 960.2 959.6 958.6 958.1

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

314.15 315.15 316.15 317.15 318.15 319.15 320.15 321.15 322.15 323.15

0.07777 0.08198 0.08639 0.09100 0.09582 0.10086 0.10612 0.11162 0.11736 0.12335

991.9 991.5 991.1 990.7 990.2 989.8 989.4 988.9 988.4 988.0

102 104 106 108 110

375.15 377.15 379.15 381.15 383.15

1.0878 1.1668 1.2504 1.3390 1.4327

956.7 955.2 953.7 952.2 950.7

112 114 116 118 120

385.15 387.15 389.15 391.15 393.15

1.5316 1.6362 1.7465 1.8628 1.9854

949.1 947.6 946.0 944.5 942.9

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

324.15 325.15 326.15 327.15 328.15 329.15 330.15 331.15 332.15 333.15

0.12961 0.13613 0.14293 0.15002 0.15741 0.16511 0.17313 0.18147 0.19016 0.19920

987.6 987.1 986.6 986.2 985.7 985.2 984.6 984.2 983.7 983.2

122 124 126 128 130

395.15 397.15 399.15 401.15 403.15

2.1145 2.2504 2.3933 2.5435 2.7013

941.2 939.6 937.9 936.2 934.6

132 134 136

405.15 407.15 409.15

2.8670 3.041 3.223

932.8 931.1 929.4

t[°C]

T[K]

P[bar]

ρ[kg/m3]

138 140 145 150

411.15 413.15 418.15 423.15

3.414 3.614 4.155 4.760

927.6 925.8 921.4 916.8

155 160 165 170 175

428.15 433.15 438.15 443.15 448.15

5.433 6.181 7.008 7.920 8.924

912.1 907.3 902.4 897.3 892.1

180 185 190 195 200

453.15 458.15 463.15 468.15 473.15

10.027 11.233 12.551 13.987 15.50

886.9 881.5 876.0 870.4 864.7

205 210 215 220 225

478.15 483.15 488.15 493.15 498.15

17.243 19.077 21.060 23.198 25.501

858.8 852.8 846.7 840.3 833.9

230 235 240 245 250 255

503.15 508.15 513.15 518.15 523.15 528.15

27.976 30.632 33.478 36.523 39.776 43.246

827.3 820.5 813.6 806.5 799.2 791.6

260 265 270 275 280

533.15 538.15 543.15 548.15 553.15

46.943 50.877 55.058 59.496 64.202

783.9 775.9 767.8 759.3 750.5

285 290 295 300 305 310

558.15 563.15 568.15 573.15 578.15 583.15

69.186 74.461 80.037 85.927 92.144 98.700

741.5 732.1 722.3 712.2 701.7 690.6

315 320 325 330 340

588.15 593.15 598.15 603.15 613.15

105.61 112.89 120.56 128.63 146.05

679.1 666.9 654.1 640.4 610.2

350 360

623.15 633.15

165.35 186.75

574.3 527.5

370 374.15

643.15 647.30

210.54 221.2

451.8 315.4

t[°C]

137

Appendix E

Orifice

Orifice As discussed in chapter 3, the duty point of a pump is adjusted by adding a resistance in connected series with the pump. In practice, this is normally done by placing an orifice in the outlet flange of the pump.

d

Q

The following graph provides the orifice diameter d [mm] based on the pipe/port dimension DN [mm], the flow Q [m3/h] and the required head loss ∆H [m].

∆H

1000

63 =25 =10 =4 H H H 5 3 6 0 0 10 H=4 H=1 H=6. H=2. = H H=

Q [m3/h]

100

10

1 1000

100

Dn=300 Dn=250 Dn=200 Dn=150 Dn=125 Dn=100 Dn=80 Dn=65

Orifice [mm]

Dn=50 Dn=40 Dn=32

10

Example: The head of a pump, with an outlet flange of 125 mm, has to be reduced by 25 m at a flow of 150 m3/h. DN = 125 mm, ∆H = 25 m, Q = 150 m3/h ⇒ It is necessary to install an orifice with a diameter of 59 mm.

1

138

DN

Appendix F

∆H has to be added to the measured head of the pump:

Change in static pressure due to change in pipe diameter

∆H =

As described in chapter 2.2, a change in pipe dimension results in a change in liquid velocity and consequently, a change in dynamic and static pressure. When the head has to be determined (see page 86), the difference in the two port dimensions requires a correction of the measured head.

D2 = 150 mm

2.g

8 . Q2

=

g . π2

.

[ D1

4 2

_ 1 D14

]

where : v1 is the liquid velocity in the inlet port in [m/s] v2 is the liquid velocity in the outlet port in [m/s] Q is the flow rate in [m3/s] g is the acceleration of gravity in [m/s2] D1 is the diameter of the inlet port in [m] D2 is the diameter of the outlet port in [m] The graph shows the ∆H value for typical sets of port dimensions D1/D2 as a function of the flow Q. In this case flow Q is measured in [m3/h] and the ∆H is measured in [m].

Example: A pump with an inlet port of 250 mm and an outlet port of 150 mm is pumping 300 m3/h. How much does the difference in port dimension affect the measured head? D1 = 250 mm

ν22 - ν12

Q = 300 m3/h

As it appears from the graph, the difference in head is ∆H = 1 m.

00 0/ 4 40 00 0 /3 50

0 25

0/ 3

50

35

30 0/

00 0/ 2 25

50 150 / 15 125 0/ 20 0 0/ 1 25

80

5/ 150 10 /1 0 00 12

80 125/ 0/

10

1 /6 00/ 5 65 80

40

/5 8 0 0/ 50

65 /

50 /

65

H [m]

D1 /D2 =

32

10

1

0.10

0.01

1

10

100

1,000

10,000

Flow [m /h] 3

139

Appendix G

Nozzles The relation between the nozzle diameter d [mm], the needed flow Q [m3/h] and the required pressure before the nozzle p [bar] is found by the nomogram below. We assume that the nozzle has a quadratic behaviour:

Q1 Q2 =

( ) p1 p2

n

where n = 0.5. Some nozzles have a lower n value (check with the supplier). Pressure p [bar] Nozzle diameter d [mm]

Flow Q [m3/h]

Example: A nozzle of 3.5 mm has to supply 1 m3/h. What is the required pressure in front of the nozzle?

100.00

p [bar]

Q = 1 m3/h, d = 3.5 mm ⇒ p = 4.8 bar

10.00

9.0

8.0

7.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.5

2.5

2.0

1.5

d=

1.0

1.00

0.10 0.01

140

0.1

Q [m3/h]

1

10

Appendix H

141

Appendix I

142

Appendix J

Periodical system

1 H

2 He

Hydrogen

Helium

3 Li

4 Be

5 B

6 C

7 N

8 O

9 F

10 Ne

Lithium

Beryllium

Boron

Carbon

Nitrogen

Oxygen

Fluorine

Neon

11 Na

12 Mg

13 Al

14 Si

15 P

16 S

17 Cl

18 Ar

Sodium

Magnesium

Aluminium

Silicon

Phosphorus

Sulphur

Chlorine

Argon

19 K

20 Ca

21 Sc

22 Ti

23 V

24 Cr

25 Mn

26 Fe

27 Co

28 Ni

29 Cu

30 Zn

31 Ga

32 Ge

33 As

34 Se

35 Br

36 Kr

Potassium

Calcium

Scandium

Titanium

Vanadium

Chromium

Manganese

Iron

Cobalt

Nickel

Copper

Zinc

Gallium

Germanium

Arsenic

Selenium

Bromine

Krypton

37 Rb

Rubidium

38 Sr

39 Y

40 Zr

41 Nb

42 Mo

43 Tc

44 Ru

45 Rh

46 Pd

47 Ag

48 Cd

49 In

50 Sn

51 Sb

52 Te

53 I

54 Xe

Strontium

Yttrium

Zirconium

Niobium

Ruthenium

Rhodium

Palladium

Silver

Cadmium

Indium

Tin

Antimony

Tellurium

Iodine

Xenon

55 Cs

56 Ba

57 La

72 Hf

73 Ta

74 W

75 Re

76 Os

77 Ir

78 Pt

79 Au

80 Hg

81 Tl

82 Pb

83 Bi

84 Po

85 At

86 Rn

Caesium

Barium

Lutetium

Hafnium

Tantalum

Tungsten

Rhenium

Osmium

Iridium

Platinum

Gold

Mercury

Thallium

Lead

Bismuth

Polonium

Astatine

Radon

87 Fr

88 Ra

89 Ac

104 Rf

105 Db

106 Sg

107 Bh

108 Hs

109 Mt

110 Ds

111 Rg

113 Uut

114 UUq

Francium

Radium

Actinium

Rutherfordium

Dubnium

Seaborgium

Bohrium

Hassium

58 Ce

59 Pr

60 Nd

61 Pm

62 Sm

63 Eu

64 Gd

65 Tb

66 Dy

67 Ho

68 Er

69 Tm

70 Yb

71 Lu

Promethium

Samarium

Europium

Gadolinium

Terbium

Dysprosium

Holmium

Erbium

Thulium

Ytterbium

Lutetium

Cerium

Molybdenum Technetium

Praseodymium Neodymium

112 Uub

Meitnerium Damstadtium Roentgenium Ununbium

Ununtrium Ununquadium

90 Th

91 Pa

92 U

93 Np

94 Pu

95 Am

96 Cm

97 Bk

98 Cf

99 Es

100 Fm

101 Md

102 No

103 Lr

Thorium

Protactinium

Uranium

Neptunium

Plutonium

Americium

Curium

Berkelium

Californium

Einsteinium

Fernium

Mendelevium

Nobelium

Lawrencium

143

Appendix K

Pump standards

Pump standards: EN 733 EN 22858

End-suction centrifugal pumps, rating with 10 bar with bearing bracket End-suction centrifugal pumps (rating 16 bar) - Designation, nominal duty point and dimensions

Pump related standards: ISO 3661 EN 12756 EN 1092 ISO 7005 DIN 24296

End-suction centrifugal pumps - Base plate and installation dimensions Mechanical seals - Principal dimensions, designation and material codes Flanges and their joints - Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and accessories, PN-designated Metallic flanges Pumps, and pump units for liquids: Spare parts

Specifications etc: ISO 9905 ISO 5199 ISO 9908 ISO 9906 EN 10204 ISO/FDIS 10816

Technical specifications for centrifugal pumps - Class 1 Technical specifications for centrifugal pumps - Class 2 Technical specifications for centrifugal pumps - Class 3 Rotodynamic pumps - Hydraulic performance tests -Grades 1 and 2 Metallic products - Types of inspection documents Mechanical vibration - Evaluation of machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts

Motor standards: EN 60034/IEC 34 Rotating electrical machines

144

Appendix L

Viscosity of typical liquids as a function of liquid temperature

Viscosity Kinematic viscosity is measured in centiStoke [cSt] (1 cSt = 10-6 m2/s). The unit [SSU] Saybolt Universal is also used in connection with kinematic viscosity. The graph below shows the relation between kinematic viscosity in [cSt] and viscosity in [SSU]. The SAE-number is also indicated in the graph.

The graph shows the viscosity of different liquids at different temperatures. As it appears from the graph, the viscosity decreases when the temperature increases.

For kinematic viscosity above 60 cSt, the Saybolt Universal viscosity is calculated by the following formula: [SSU] = 4.62 . [cSt] Kinematic viscosity centiStokes cSt

cSt 10000 8 6

Sekunder Saybolt Universal SSU

1

The densities shown in the graph are for 20° C

V

4

Glycerol ρ: 1260

2 3 4 5

2

32 35 40 50

1000

10 8 6

20

4

Silicone oil

Fuel oil 2

100 8 6

40 50

Olive oil ρ: 900

100

30 200 300

Cottonseed oil ρ: 900 Fruit juice ρ: 1000

100

400 500

SAE 10 Heavy ρ: 980

4

200

1000

300

10 8

Mean ρ: 955

Spindle oil ρ: 850

2

400 500

Light ρ: 930

6

Silicone oil ρ: 1000 Milk ρ: 1030

Petroleum ρ: 800

1000

2000

Aniline ρ: 1030

SAE 30

4000 5000

SAE 40

10000

SAE 60

3000

2

SAE 20

2000 3000

Gas and diesel oil ρ: 880

4

SAE no. ( at 20o C)

SAE 50

SAE 70

4000 5000

20000

10000

40000 50000

20000

100000

30000 Ethyl Alkohol ρ: 770

1.0 8

Silicone oil

Petrol ρ: 750

6

Water ρ: 1000

Acetone ρ: 790

4

Ether ρ: 700

Acetic acid ρ: 1050

2

Mercury ρ: 13570

t

0.1 - 10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

30000 40000 50000

70

80

90

100°C

200000

100000

145

Appendix L

Ethylene glycol

Concentration wt % = Temperature

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

40%

45%

50%

55%

-50

1107

-45

1106

173.7 118.6

-40 -35 -30

-15 -10 -5

1081

32.3

1098

101.2

1105

259.7

1089

57.3

1097

68.9

1104

82.7

1089

40.0

1096

48.1

1103

58.8

1080

23.5

1088

28.7

1095

34.4

1102

42.6

1072

14.1

1079

17.4

1086

21.1

1094

25.2

1101

31.5

-25 -20

146

60%

1055

7.2

1063

8.8

1070

10.9

1078

13.2

1085

15.8

1092

18.8

1099

23.6

1046

4.9

1054

5.8

1062

7.0

1069

8.5

1077

10.2

1084

12.1

1091

14.3

1098

18.0

1028

2.9

1036

3.4

1045

4.0

1053

4.7

1060

5.7

1068

6.8

1075

8.1

1082

9.4

1089

11.1

1096

14.0

0

1018

2.0

1027

2.5

1035

2.9

1043

3.3

1051

3.9

1059

4.7

1066

5.5

1074

6.5

1081

7.5

1088

8.8

1094

11.0

5

1017

1.7

1026

2.1

1034

2.4

1042

2.8

1050

3.3

1057

3.9

1065

4.5

1072

5.3

1079

6.1

1086

7.1

1092

8.8

10

1016

1.5

1024

1.8

1032

2.1

1041

2.4

1048

2.8

1056

3.2

1063

3.8

1070

4.4

1077

5.0

1084

5.8

1090

7.1

15

1014

1.3

1023

1.6

1031

1.8

1039

2.1

1047

2.4

1054

2.8

1061

3.2

1068

3.7

1075

4.2

1082

4.8

1088

5.9

20

1013

1.1

1021

1.4

1029

1.6

1037

1.8

1045

2.0

1052

2.4

1059

2.7

1066

3.1

1073

3.5

1079

4.0

1086

4.9

25

1011

1.0

1019

1.2

1027

1.4

1035

1.6

1043

1.8

1050

2.1

1057

2.4

1064

2.7

1071

3.0

1077

3.4

1083

4.1

30

1009

0.9

1018

1.1

1026

1.2

1033

1.4

1041

1.6

1048

1.8

1055

2.1

1062

2.3

1068

2.6

1075

3.0

1081

3.5

35

1008

0.8

1016

1.0

1024

1.1

1031

1.2

1039

1.4

1046

1.6

1053

1.8

1059

2.1

1066

2.3

1072

2.6

1078

3.0

40

1006

0.7

1014

0.9

1021

1.0

1029

1.1

1036

1.2

1043

1.4

1050

1.6

1057

1.8

1063

2.0

1069

2.3

1076

2.6

45

1003

0.7

1011

0.8

1019

0.9

1027

1.0

1034

1.1

1041

1.3

1048

1.4

1054

1.6

1060

1.8

1067

2.0

1073

2.2

50

1001

0.6

1009

0.7

1017

0.8

1024

0.9

1031

1.0

1038

1.1

1045

1.3

1051

1.5

1058

1.6

1064

1.8

1070

2.0

55

999

0.6

1007

0.7

1014

0.7

1022

0.8

1029

0.9

1036

1.0

1042

1.2

1048

1.3

1055

1.5

1061

1.6

1066

1.7

60

996

0.5

1004

0.6

1012

0.7

1019

0.7

1026

0.8

1033

0.9

1039

1.1

1045

1.2

1052

1.3

1058

1.4

1063

1.5

65

994

0.5

1001

0.6

1009

0.6

1016

0.7

1023

0.8

1030

0.9

1036

1.0

1042

1.1

1048

1.2

1054

1.3

1060

1.4 1.2

70

991

0.5

998

0.5

1006

0.6

1013

0.6

1020

0.7

1027

0.8

1033

0.9

1039

1.0

1045

1.1

1051

1.2

1056

75

988

0.4

996

0.5

1003

0.5

1010

0.6

1017

0.6

1023

0.7

1030

0.8

1036

0.9

1042

1.0

1047

1.1

1053

1.1

80

985

0.4

992

0.5

1000

0.5

1007

0.5

1014

0.6

1020

0.7

1026

0.8

1032

0.8

1038

0.9

1044

1.0

1049

1.0 0.9

85

982

0.4

989

0.4

997

0.5

1003

0.5

1010

0.5

1017

0.6

1023

0.7

1029

0.8

1034

0.8

1040

0.9

1045

90

979

0.3

986

0.4

993

0.4

1000

0.5

1007

0.5

1013

0.6

1019

0.6

1025

0.7

1031

0.8

1036

0.8

1041

0.8

95

975

0.3

983

0.4

990

0.4

996

0.4

1003

0.5

1009

0.5

1015

0.6

1021

0.6

1027

0.7

1032

0.7

1037

0.8

100

972

0.3

979

0.4

986

0.4

993

0.4

999

0.4

1005

0.5

1011

0.5

1017

0.6

1023

0.6

1028

0.6

1033

0.7

Appendix L

Propylene glycol

Concentration wt % = Temperature

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

40%

45%

50%

55%

60%

-50

1077

2433.5

-45

1075

1390.3

-40 -35

1057

1045

817.6 494.4

1069

291.8

1072

157.1

1067

186.7

1071

307.2

87.1

1062

102.5

1066

122.6

1069

196.0

1051

44.9

1056

58.1

1060

68.6

1064

82.6

1067

128.2

1050

31.1

1054

39.8

1058

47.1

1062

56.9

1065

85.9 58.9

1039

11.4

1044

16.2

1048

22.1

1053

27.9

1056

33.2

1060

40.2

1063

1021

3.8

1027

4.8

1032

6.3

1037

8.7

1042

12.0

1047

16.0

1051

20.1

1054

23.9

1058

29.0

1061

41.4

5.1

1036

6.8

1040

9.1

1045

11.9

1049

14.7

1052

17.6

1056

21.4

1059

29.7

-10 -5

1074

22.2

-20 -15

468.8

1063

-30 -25

1070

0

1013

2.6

1020

3.1

1025

3.9

1031

5

1012

2.2

1018

2.6

1024

3.2

1029

4.1

1034

5.4

1038

7.0

1043

9.0

1046

11.1

1050

13.2

1053

16.1

1056

21.7

10

1011

1.8

1017

2.2

1022

2.7

1027

3.4

1032

4.3

1036

5.5

1040

6.9

1044

8.5

1048

10.1

1051

12.3

1053

16.2

15

1009

1.6

1015

1.9

1020

2.3

1025

2.8

1030

3.5

1034

4.4

1038

5.5

1042

6.6

1045

7.9

1048

9.6

1051

12.3

20

1008

1.4

1013

1.6

1019

1.9

1023

2.4

1028

2.9

1032

3.6

1036

4.4

1039

5.3

1042

6.3

1045

7.6

1048

9.6

25

1006

1.2

1011

1.4

1017

1.7

1021

2.0

1026

2.5

1030

3.0

1033

3.6

1037

4.3

1040

5.1

1042

6.1

1045

7.5

30

1004

1.1

1009

1.2

1014

1.4

1019

1.7

1023

2.1

1027

2.5

1031

2.9

1034

3.5

1037

4.2

1039

5.0

1042

6.0

35

1002

0.9

1007

1.1

1012

1.3

1017

1.5

1021

1.8

1024

2.1

1028

2.5

1031

2.9

1034

3.5

1036

4.2

1038

4.9

40

1000

0.8

1005

1.0

1010

1.1

1014

1.3

1018

1.5

1022

1.8

1025

2.1

1028

2.5

1031

2.9

1033

3.5

1035

4.0

45

998

0.8

1003

0.9

1007

1.0

1011

1.2

1015

1.4

1019

1.6

1022

1.8

1025

2.1

1027

2.5

1030

3.0

1032

3.4

50

995

0.7

1000

0.8

1005

0.9

1009

1.0

1012

1.2

1016

1.4

1019

1.6

1021

1.8

1024

2.2

1026

2.6

1028

2.9

998

0.7

1002

0.8

1006

0.9

1009

1.1

1012

1.2

1015

1.4

1018

1.6

1020

1.9

1022

2.2

1024

2.4

55

993

0.6

60

990

0.6

995

0.6

999

0.7

1003

0.8

1006

1.0

1009

1.1

1012

1.2

1014

1.4

1017

1.7

1019

1.9

1020

2.1

65

988

0.5

992

0.6

996

0.7

999

0.8

1003

0.9

1006

1.0

1008

1.1

1011

1.3

1013

1.5

1015

1.7

1016

1.9

70

985

0.5

989

0.5

993

0.6

996

0.7

999

0.8

1002

0.9

1005

1.0

1007

1.1

1009

1.3

1011

1.5

1012

1.6

75

982

0.5

986

0.5

989

0.6

993

0.6

996

0.7

998

0.8

1001

0.9

1003

1.0

1005

1.2

1006

1.4

1008

1.5

80

979

0.4

983

0.5

986

0.5

989

0.6

992

0.7

995

0.7

997

0.8

999

10.0

1001

1.1

1002

1.2

1003

1.3

85

976

0.4

979

0.4

982

0.5

985

0.5

988

0.6

991

0.7

993

0.8

995

0.9

996

1.0

998

1.1

999

1.2

90

972

0.4

976

0.4

979

0.4

982

0.5

984

0.6

986

0.6

988

0.7

990

0.8

992

0.9

993

1.0

994

1.1

95

969

0.3

972

0.4

975

0.4

978

0.5

980

0.5

982

0.6

984

0.7

986

0.7

987

0.8

988

0.9

989

1.0

100

965

0.3

968

0.3

971

0.4

974

0.4

976

0.5

978

0.6

980

0.6

981

0.7

983

0.7

984

0.8

984

0.9

147

Appendix L

Sodium hydroxide ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

Concentration wt % = Temperature

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

40%

45%

50%

55%

0

1060

1117

1174

1230

1285

1334

1384

1435

1483

1530

1559

5

1058

1115

1172

1227

1283

1332

1381

1429

1480

1528

1556

10

1057

1113

1170

1224

1280

1330

1377

1423

1478

1525

1553

15

1056

1111

1167

1222

1277

1326

1372

1420

1471

1518

1546

20

1054

1.3

1109

1.7

1164

2.5

1219

3.6

1274

6.2

1322

10.1

1367

16.8

1416

25.4

1464

38.2

1511

51.8

25

1052

1.1

1107

1.5

1162

2.1

1217

3.1

1271

5.1

1319

8.3

1364

13.3

1413

19.9

1461

29.0

1508

39.0

30

1050

1.0

1104

1.3

1159

1.8

1214

2.7

1268

4.0

1315

6.5

1360

9.9

1410

14.4

1457

19.9

1504

26.2

35

1048

0.9

1102

1.2

1157

1.6

1211

2.3

1265

3.4

1312

5.5

1357

8.2

1407

11.6

1454

15.9

1501

20.5

40

1046

0.8

1100

2.0

1262

2.8

1309

4.5

8.9

1450

12.0

1497

14.7

1.1

1.4

1154

1208

1353

6.6

1403

45

1044

0.7

1097

1.0

1151

1.3

1205

1.8

1259

2.6

1306

3.9

1347

5.6

1396

7.5

1443

9.9

1490

12.1

50

1042

0.7

1094

0.9

1148

1.2

1202

1.6

1256

2.3

1302

3.3

1340

4.6

1389

6.0

1436

7.8

1483

9.4

55

1039

0.6

1092

0.8

1145

1.0

1199

1.5

1253

2.0

1299

2.9

60

0.7

1143

0.9

1196

1.3

1250

1.8

1295

2.4

25

30

40

45

1036

0.6

1089

65

1033

0.5

1086

0.7

1140

0.9

1193

1.2

1246

1.6

70

1030

0.5

1083

0.6

1137

0.8

1190

1.1

1243

1.5

75

1027

1080

1134

1186

1240

80

1025

1077

1131

1183

1237

1540

cSt

kg/m3

100

1600

55% 50% 1500

50% 45% 40%

45%

35%

40%

10

1400

30%

35%

25%

30% 1300

20% 15% 10% 5%

25% 20%

1

1200

15% 10%

1100

5%

0 20

1000 0

148

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

°C

35

50

55

60

65

70

°C

Appendix L

Calcium chloride

Concentration wt % = Temperature

Natrium chloride

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

ρ

ν

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

[kg/m3]

[cSt]

10%

15%

20%

Concentration wt % = Temperature

25%

-25

1245

7.7

-15

-20

1244

6.3

-10

-15 -10

1138

3.0

5%

10%

15%

20%

1162

4.0

1120

2.9

1160

3.2

1189

4.3

1242

5.2

-5

1082

2.2

1118

2.4

1158

2.7

1188

3.6

1241

4.4

0

1043

1.8

1080

1.8

1116

2.0

1155

2.3

-5

1090

2.3

1137

2.6

1187

3.1

1239

3.8

5

1042

1.5

1079

1.6

1114

1.7

1153

1.9

0

1088

2.0

1135

2.2

1186

2.6

1237

3.3

10

1041

1.3

1077

1.4

1112

1.5

1151

1.7

5

1086

1.7

1134

1.9

1184

2.3

1235

2.9

15

1040

1.1

1075

1.2

1110

1.3

1148

1.5

10

1085

1.5

1132

1.7

1182

2.0

1233

2.5

20

1039

1.0

1074

1.1

1108

1.2

1146

1.3

1037

0.9

1072

0.9

1106

1.0

1144

1.2

1036

0.8

1070

0.9

1103

0.9

1141

1.1

15

1083

1.3

1131

1.5

1180

1.8

1230

2.2

25

20

1082

1.1

1129

1.3

1178

1.6

1228

2.0

30

25

1082

1.0

1127

1.2

1176

1.4

1226

1.8

30

1081

0.9

1125

1.0

1173

1.3

1223

1.6

149

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